Index of Images, Roman Coins: Republic and Principate: Barbara F. McManus

Go to Index, Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V, Part VI, Part VII, Part VIII, Part IX, Part X, Part XI, Part XII, Part XIII, Part XIV, Part XV, Roman Coins: Empire, Greek Coins, Coins from the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, Coins from the National Museum in Warsaw, Poland, Coins from the Hunterian Museum

coin denominations showing relative sizes and names of coins; smaller version
This shows the coinage as reformed by Augustus c. 23 BCE; the coins are ancient (aureus, denarius, and sestertius of Vitellius, 69 CE; dupondius, as, semis, and quadrans of Nero, 54-68 CE).
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006

diagram explaining equivalent values of Roman coins, with relative size and denominations; smaller version
This shows the coinage as reformed by Augustus c. 23 BCE, using the same coins as the previous diagram; values are denoted in relation to the copper as and also to the next lowest denomination.
Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006

denarius depicting Juno Moneta, issued by moneyer T. Carisius, c. 46 BCE
larger version.
In 390 BCE, the sacred geese of Juno warned (monere) the Romans about an impending attack by Gauls, hence her temple on the Capitoline was dedicated to Juno Moneta. The mint for making coins was adjacent to this temple and the goddess thus became associated with money.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008.
Keywords: coin; coinmaking

reverse of above denarius, issued by moneyer T. Carisius, c. 46 BCE
larger version.
Reverse depicts coinmaking tools; anvil die with punch die above, tongs and hammer on sides, surrounded by laurel wreath.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008.
Keywords: coin; coinmaking

drawing illustrating process of striking coins, modern
The seated man uses tongs to hold the punch die over the anvil die, with the metal flan between them. The standing man strikes the ensemble with a hammer.
London, Museum of London. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008.
Keywords: coin; coinmaking

mold for making flans, first century BCE
The heated metal would be poured into the mold; when it had partially hardened the resulting flans would be used for stiking coins.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008.
Keywords: coin; coinmaking

silver drachm of the city of Trapezus on the Black Sea, c. 350-25 BCE
The coin depicts a banker's table (trapeza) piled high with coins.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: banking; commerce

aureus of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, 41-40 CE, issued in the region of the Adriatic or Ionian Sea
The obverse contains a portrait of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus or one of his ancestors; the inscription reads simply AHENOBARB[us]; see next entry for the reverse of this coin.
Paris, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque Nationale. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009.

aureus of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, 41-40 CE, issued in the region of the Adriatic or Ionian Sea
The reverse depicts a tetrastyle temple of Neptune, perhaps the Aedes Neptuni on the Campus Martius (the word NEPT[unus] appears above the temple); see previous entry for the obverse of this coin. The inscription salutes Ahenobarbus, son of Lucius, as Imperator, referring to the naval victory won by Ahenobarbus on the first day of the battle at Philippi. He later joined forces with Antony and ultimately with Octavian.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004.

denarius of Augustus, c. 13 BCE
The reverse depicts Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law and premier general of Augustus; the inscription names Agrippa and the moneyer, C. Sulpicius Platorinus.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, succession

brass dupondius issued at the colony of Nemausus (Nimes) in Gaul, c. 27 BCE-14 CE
Obverse: back-to-back heads of Agrippa and Augustus. Agrippa wears a rostral crown ornamented with a representation of a ship's beak, to celebrate the naval victory at Actium. Augustus wears the corona civica made of oak leaves, and the legend IMP[erator] DIVI celebrates not only his victory, but also his descent from the deified Julius Caesar.
Reverse: crocodile holding a palm branch and chained to a palm tree over which a wreath flutters, symbolizing the conquest of Egypt. The legend names the place of issue, COL[onia] NEM[ausus].
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, province, propaganda

denarius with head of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Rome mint, 12 BCE
smaller version.
This coin was issued under Augustus, with Cossus Cornelius Lentulus as moneyer. The reverse depicts Agrippa wearing a mural and rostral crown (combining city walls with a ship's beak, celebrating his land and naval victories). Since Agrippa died in March of 12 BCE, the coin may have been issued after his death as a tribute.
Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

denarius of Mark Antony; mint of Rome, c. 44 BCE
Antony is shown with religious symbols and veiled head to indicate mourning for the assassinated Julius Caesar.
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2002
Keywords: coin

denarius with head of Mark Antony, c. 44-42 BCE
Antony is shown with a beard, indicating mourning for the assassinated Julius Caesar.
Chicago, Art Institute. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003

denarius of Mark Antony; larger version; c. 41 BCE
The inscription identifies Antony as triumvir.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001, 2006
Keywords: coin, Second Triumvirate

silver quinarius of Mark Antony, minted at Lyons, c. 43-42 BCE
The obverse of the coin shows the head of a winged Victory probably with the hairstyle and features of Antony's wife Fulvia. The legend reads III VIR R[ei] P[ublicae] C[onstituendae], "Triumvir for the regulation of the Republic".
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin, women, Nike, Victoria

aureus obverse: head of winged Victory, minted at Rome, c. 41 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer C. Numonius Vaala; the likeness on the coin is similar to portraits of Fulvia, wife of Antony, in the guise of Victory that appeared on coins from Eumachia, a Phrygian city of which Fulvia was patron.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: coin, women, Nike, Victory

silver denarius with bust of winged Victory, minted at Rome, 42 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer Lucius Mussidius Longus; the likeness on the obserse coin is similar to portraits of Fulvia, wife of Antony, in the guise of Victory that appeared on coins from Eumachia, a Phrygian city of which Fulvia was patron.
Berlin, Bode Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin, women, Nike, Victory

photo of coin (cistophorus) of Antony, 39 BCE, Ephesus
Commemorates the marriage of Antony and Octavia in 40; reverse depicts Antony as Dionysus, obverse (shown here) shows the bust of Octavia surrounded by Dionysiac symbols, including the woven basket called the cista mystica.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Second Triumvirate

silver cistophorus of Mark Antony, 39 BCE, Ephesus mint
Reverse: bust of Octavia on top of cista mystica, flanked by snakes. The legend reads III VIR R[ei] P[ublicae] C[onstituendae], indicating that Antony was a member of the Second Triumvirate.
Chicago, Art Institute. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: coin; Octavian

silver cistophorus of Mark Antony, 39 BCE, Ephesus mint
Obverse: conjoined heads of Antony and Octavia; Antony wears a laurel wreath. Detail, heads of Antony and Octavia. The legend reads M ANTONIVS IMPerator COnSul DESIGnatus ITER ET TERTius.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin; Second Triumvirate

silver drachm of Mark Antony, minted at Antioch, 40-31 BCE
The portrait shows a youthful Antony with an abundance of curly hair.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006

denarius of Mark Antony, military mint, probably at Patrae, 31 BCE (shortly before battle of Actium)
The obverse of this coin depicts a warship with banners attached to its mast (smaller version); the inscription reads ANT[onius] AVG[ur] III VIR R[ei] P[ublicae] C[onstituendae], "Antonius, augur, triumvir for the regulation of the republic." On the reverse is a legionary eagle between two standards (smaller version); the inscription reads LEG[io] XX, indicating that the coin was issued to pay the 20th legion.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: army; military; legion; ship; galley

aureus of Mark Antony, with legionary eagle between 2 standards; inscription reads COHORTIVM PRAETORIARVM
denarius with 3 standards; inscription reads CHORTIS SPECVLATORVM;
denarius with eagle and 2 standards; inscription reads LEG. XVIII LYBICAE
These coins were all issued to pay his legions in the war with Octavian.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: army; military; legion

aureus of Mark Antony, 39 BCE;
smaller version.
Obverse: portrait of Antony (smaller version); the inscription reads "M[arcus] ANTONIVS IMP[erator] R[ei] P[ublicae] C[onstituendae].
Reverse: portrait of Octavia (smaller version), his wife and the sister of Octavian (note her characteristic nodus hairstyle).
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: coin; history; Second Triumvirate

aureus of Mark Antony with portrait of Octavia, uncertain mint, 38 BCE
This detailed portrait indicates Octavia's severe nodus and bun hairstyle. The inscription reads CO[n]S[ul] DESIGN[atus] ITER ET TER III VIR R[ei] P[ublicae] C[onstituendae].
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013.
Keywords: coin; history; Second Triumvirate

aureus of Mark Antony with portrait of Octavia, uncertain mint, 38 BCE
This detailed portrait indicates Octavia's severe nodus and bun hairstyle.
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2007.
Keywords: coin; history; Second Triumvirate

silver denarius of Mark Antony, minted in Alexandria, 34 BCE
One side depicts the head of Antony (smaller version) with an Armenian tiara behind him; the inscription reads ANTONI ARMENIA DEVICTA. The other shows the diademed head of Cleopatra (smaller version) with a ship's prow in front; the inscription reads CLEOPATRAE REGINAE REGVM FILIORVM REGVM ("for Cleopatra, queen of kings and of the sons of kings"). Scholars dispute which of these sides is the obverse of the coin.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara F. McManus, 2012

denarius with head of Cleopatra; 34 BCE, Alexandria
This is another version of the same coin as above.
Munich, Münzsammlung. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Antony

drawing of silver tetradrachm of Antony with heads of Antony and Cleopatra; 36-34 BCE
Credits: J.C. Stobart, The Grandeur that Was Rome (2nd ed.), plate 22 facing p. 142, 1920
Keywords: Cleopatra; Antony; history

silver tetradrachm of Augustus, 24-20 BCE
Inscription reads IMP[erator] CAESAR
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: coin, Octavian, principate

aureus of Augustus, depicted in youthful form with no inscription
British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: emperor, principate, coin

aureus of Augustus, 28 BCE, probably minted in Asia Minor
smaller version. The inscription reads LEGES ET IURA P.R. RESTITUIT (“he restored the laws and rights of the Roman people,” Res Gestae 34); Augustus, wearing a toga and holding a scroll, is shown seated on the curule chair (sella curulis) that marked high office, with a capsa (container for scrolls) on the ground next to it.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2010
Keywords: emperor, principate, coin

denarius of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Depicts the Temple of Jupiter Tonans erected by Augustus on the Capitoline.
Munich, Münzsammlung. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, principate; religion; Zeus, thunderer

aureus of Augustus, mint of Rome or Brundisium, 27 BCE;
The obverse of this coin contains a portrait of Augustus, with the inscription CAESAR CO[n]S[ul] VII CIVIBVS SERVATEIS ("Caesar, consul for the 7th time, because of the saving of the citizens"). The reverse depicts an eagle with wings outspread clutching an oak wreath (corona civica) with two laurel branches behind. The inscription reads AVGVSTVS S[enatus] C[onsulto].
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Augustus; imperial symbolism

denarius of Augustus, Caesaraugusta mint in Spain, 19-18 BCE
The obverse shows a bare-headed Augustus with the inscription CAESAR AVGVSTVS. The reverse depicts the clipeus virtutis (shield of valor), with the inscription S[enatus] P[opulus]Q[ue] R[omanus] CL[ipeus] V[irtutis]. See Res Gestae 34, "In the senate house was placed the golden shield, which the Senate and Roman People gave to me for my valor, my clemency, my justice, and my piety."
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, principate

denarius of Augustus, Colonia Patricia or Nemausus, 19-18 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin depicts the clipeus virtutis (shield of valor) between two laurel branches, with the inscription CAESAR AVGVSTVS S[enatus] P[opulus]Q[ue] R[omanus]
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin, principate

denarius of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Shows a winged victory holding the clipeus virtutis and a laurel wreath in front of a column.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, principate

silver cistophorus of Augustus; minted in Ephesus, 25 BCE
Shows a the sea-goat that symbolizes the constellation Capricorn holding a cornucopia surrounded by a laurel-leaf crown with the inscription AVGVSTVS. Capricorn was adopted by Augustus as his favorite astrological sign, used on cameos, coins, and legionary standards.
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin, principate; imperial symbolism

aureus of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Shows a winged victory holding the clipeus virtutis.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, principate

aureus of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
The obverse depicts Augustus wearing an oak wreath (corona civica) over an abundance of curly hair. The reverse of this coin showed the clipeus virtutis flanked by laurel branches.
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2011
Keywords: coin, principate

denarius of Augustus, mint of Spain, 19-18 BCE
smaller version.
Obverse depicts the oak leaf crown (corona civica, shown with the ribbons that would lie on the neck pointing upward) awarded to Augustus "for saving the citizens" (OB CIVIS SERVATOS).
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, principate

sestertus of Augustus; after 27 BCE
Obverse depicts the oak leaf crown (corona civica with the legend OB CIVIS SERVATOS.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: coin, principate

aureus celebrating Augustus, Lucius Caninius Gallus as moneyer, mint of Rome, 12 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin shows the door of Augustus's house between laurel trees, with the corona civica above. See Res Gestae 34, "I was called Augustus by decree of the Senate; the doorposts of my house were decorated with laurel; over my door was fixed a civic wreath." The legend reads L[ucius] CANINIVS GALLVS OB C[ivis] S[ervatos] ("for saving the citizens").
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: coin, principate

aureus of Augustus; larger version
The inscription is CAESAR AVGVSTVS between two laurel trees.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: coin, principate

denarius of Augustus; mint of Spain, 19-18 BCE
Depicts the two laurel trees that flanked the door of Augustus' house on the Palatine.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, principate

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 15 BCE
smaller version.
Tiberius and Drusus hand Augustus symbols of victory (laurel branches) after their successful Alpine campaign of 16/15 BCE; toga-clad Augustus sits on sella curulis. The legend is IMP[erator] X.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: imperial politics, imperial symbolism, coin

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 15 BCE
Tiberius and Drusus hand Augustus symbols of victory (laurel branches) after their successful Alpine campaign of 16/15 BCE; toga-clad Augustus sits on sella curulis.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: imperial politics, imperial symbolism, coin

denarius of Augustus; 15 BCE from mint of Lyons
On the reverse Tiberius and Drusus hand Augustus symbols of victory (laurel branches) after successful Alpine campaign of 16/15 BCE; toga-clad Augustus sits on the sella curulis.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: imperial politics, imperial symbolism, coin

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 15-13 BCE
Obverse, head of Augustus with the legend AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ilius].
Reverse, Apollo with lyre as victor at the naval battle of Actium.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin, emperor

denarius of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 15-13 BCE
Obverse, head of Augustus with the legend AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ilius].
Reverse, Apollo with lyre as victor at the naval battle of Actium.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, emperor

denarius issued by moneyer C. Antistius Vetus, 16 BCE
The coin depicts Apollo citharoede stading before an altar, wearing flowing garments and holding a lyre in one hand and a libation bowl in the other. He stands on a platform ornamented with ship's beaks (rostra).
The legends refers to the victory at Actium (ACTIO APOLLINI).
Munich, Münzsammlung. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, emperor

aureus of Augustus, mint of Rome, c. 19 BCE
The obverse contains a portrait of Augustus wearing an oak wreath (corona civica), with the inscription CAESAR AVGVSTVS. The reverse depicts a lyre with curved arms and a sounding box made of a tortoise shell. The inscription, TVRPILIANVS III VIR, names the moneyer, Publius Petronius Turpilianus.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: coin, emperor

denarius of Augustus, mint of Rome, 19 BCE
The obverse contains a portrait of Augustus, bareheaded, with the inscription CAESAR AVGVSTVS. The reverse depicts Tarpeia holding up her hands in fright, covered in shields up to her waist (smaller version). The inscription commemorates the moneyer P. Petronius Turpilianus, triumvir of the Augustan mint, whose family claimed descent from the Sabines.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: coin, emperor; legendary history of Rome

aureus of Augustus, 19-18 BCE
Shows proposed Temple of Mars Ultor on the Capitoline, with the standards recovered from the Parthians displayed there. This round temple (tholos) may never have been built, since the standards were eventually displayed in the much grander Temple of Mars Ultor dedicated in 2 BCE as part of the Forum of Augustus.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

aureus of Augustus, 19-18 BCE
Shows the proposed round Temple of Mars Ultor on the Capitoline, with the triumphal chariot voted for Augustus in gratitude for the recovery of the Roman standards from the Parthians. Inside the chariot is the legionary eagle and a laurel branch.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

coin (cistophorus) of Augustus, 19-18 BCE
Shows the proposed Temple of Mars Ultor on the Capitoline with military standard.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

denarius of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Obverse: head of Augustus; Reverse: proposed Temple of Mars Ultor on the Capitoline with military standard inside.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

denarius of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Reverse shows proposed Temple of Mars Ultor on the Capitoline with chariot, legionary eagle, and laurel branch inside.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

denarius of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Reverse shows proposed Temple of Mars Ultor on the Capitoline with statue of Mars holding legionary eagle and standard.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

denarius of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Reverse shows statue of Mars holding legionary eagle and standard. Legend reads SIGNIS RECEPTIS, "for the standards recovered [from the Parthians]."
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005

aureus of Augustus; minted in Spain, 19-18 BCE
Reverse shows the ceremonial shield awarded to Augustus by the Senate with the inscription CL[ipeus] V[irtutis]. It is flanked by a legionary eagle, a standard, and the words S[enatus] P[opulus]Q[ue] R[omanus]. The legend reads SIGNIS RECEPTIS, "for the standards recovered [from the Parthians]."
Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2012

aureus of Augustus; minted in Spain, 17-16 BCE
Reverse shows statue of Mars military flag (vexillum) and a Greek dagger (parazonium).
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

silver coin of Augustus; 19-18 BCE, minted in Asia Minor at Pergamon
The reverse of this cistophorus shows a triumphal arch inscribed IM IX TR POT V and topped by a quadriga; inside the arch is another inscription S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS, referring to the standards recovered from the Parthians. Eagle standards are depicted on either side of the arch.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

aureus of Augustus; 18-16 BCE
Obverse: head of Augustus; legend reads SPQR IMP CAESARI AUG COS XI TR POT VI ("the Senate and Roman People to Imperator Caesar Augustus Consul for the 11th time, tribunician power for the 6th time").
Reverse: triumphal arch with 3 portals. On top Augustus drives a quadriga flanked by Parthians holding up recovered standards (see detail); legend reads CIVIB ET SIGN MILIT A PART RECVPER ("for the citizens and military standards recovered from the Parthians").
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

denarius of Augustus, dating from about 2 BCE, mounted in a gold pendant;
coin shows Augustus wearing laurel wreath and emphasizes his status as son of the deified Julius Caesar
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001.

denarius of Augustus, crudely mounted in a gold pendant;
coin shows a star and the crescent moon
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001.

gold aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 8 BCE
Augustus, seated on the curule chair on a platform, receives a child hostage from a barbarian chieftain, probably from Gaul.
Berlin, Museum of Prehistory and Early History. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, children

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 8 BCE
depicting the emperor seated on a curule chair on a dais receiving a a child hostage from a barbarian chieftain.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2007
Keywords: coin, children

denarius of Augustus, mint of Rome, 13 BCE
The obverse contains a portrait of Augustus. The reverse depicts Julia, Augustus' daughter, as the goddess Diana, as indicated by the quiver on her shoulder. In her hair she wears a diadem topped with a jewel. The inscription refers to the moneyer: C MARIUS TRO[mentina tribu].
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, succession

gold quinarius of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 7-8 CE
smaller version.
The reverse depicts a winged victory seated on a globe, holding a wreath in her hand; the hairstyle and features are somewhat reminiscent of Livia. The quinarius had the value of half of an aureus; it was issued only intermittently and probably for ceremonial occasions, such as gifts to high-ranking government or military officials.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin

denarius of Augustus, mint of Rome, 13 BCE
The obverse contains a portrait of Augustus. The reverse depicts Julia, Augustus' daughter, flanked by her sons Gaius and Lucius, who had been adopted by Augustus (see detail). The laurel wreath over Julia's head signifies her special role in the dynastic succession. The inscription refers to the moneyer: C MARIUS TRO[mentina tribu].
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, children

denarius of Augustus, 13 BCE
depicting his daughter Julia flanked by her two sons Gaius and Lucius; there is a laurel wreath directly above Julia's head.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin, succession, children

denarius of Augustus, 13 BCE
depicting his daughter Julia flanked by her two sons Gaius and Lucius; there is a laurel wreath directly above Julia's head.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: coin, succession, children

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 8-7 BCE
The reverse depicts Gaius Caesar on horseback with a legionary eagle and two military standards behind him. The coin commemorates Augustus' introduction of his 12-year-old adopted son to the army in Gaul. Gaius still wears a bulla, which flies out from his neck and is emphasized on the coin by its exaggerated size.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, succession, children

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 8-7 BCE
smaller version.
The reverse depicts Gaius Caesar on horseback with a legionary eagle and two military standards behind him. The coin commemorates Augustus' introduction of his 12-year-old adopted son to the army in Gaul. Gaius still wears a bulla, which flies out from his neck and is emphasized on the coin by its exaggerated size.
Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2010
Keywords: coin, succession, children

gold aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 8-7 BCE
The obverse contains the head of Augustus wearing a laurel-leaf crown, encircled by the inscription AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ilius]. The reverse depicts one of his adopted grandsons, Gaius Caesar, on a galloping horse; he holds a shield and sword in his left hand, while a legionary eagle appears between two standards behind him. The inscription reads C[aius] CAES[ar] AVGVS[ti] F[ilius].
Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2012
Keywords: coin; succession

gold aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 8-7 BCE
The obverse contains the head of Augustus wearing a laurel-leaf crown, encircled by the inscription AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ilius]. The reverse depicts one of his adopted grandsons, Gaius Caesar, on a galloping horse, with a prominent bulla around his neck; he holds a shield and sword in his left hand, while a legionary eagle appears between two standards behind him. The inscription reads C[aius] CAES[ar] AVGVS[ti] F[ilius].
Bergen (Norway), Bergen Museum, University of Bergen. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009
Keywords: coin; succession

denarius of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 2 BCE - 4 CE
The obverse depicts Gaius and Lucius Caesar, grandsons adopted by Augustus, wearing togas and holding shields and spears, with religious symbols in the background. The inscription identifies them as consuls designate and "leaders of youth" (principes iuventutis).
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, succession, children

aureus of Augustus; larger version, 2 BCE;
These coins depict his adopted sons (actually grandsons) Gaius and Lucius Caesar. They are shown with with honorific shields and spears. The inscription identifies them as "sons of Augustus, consuls designate, and leaders of youth (principes iuventutis)."
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003, 2007
Keywords: coin, Augustan succession, children

aureus of Augustus; larger version; dating from 1 BCE;
coin shows Augustus wearing laurel wreath and emphasizes his status as son of the deified Julius Caesar
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 1999, 2001.

denarius of Augustus, depicting a viaduct topped by a triumphal arch;
emphasizes Augustus' building program in Rome.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, city of Rome

aureus of Augustus, depicting Victory driving a chariot pulled by 2 elephants on a triumphal arch atop a viaduct
This coin was issued to commemorate Augustus' work on roads; inscription reads QVOD VIAE MVN(itae) SVNT ("because roads have been built").
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: city of Rome

silver denarius of Augustus, mint of Rome, 17 BCE
The obverse of this coin depicts a herald for the Ludi Saeculares (smaller version), celebrated by Augustus in 17 BCE; the herald wears a helmet with 2 feathers and holds the caduceus of Mercury, the traditional herald's staff, and a shield with a six-pointed star. The inscription reads AVGVST[us] DIVI F[ilius] LVDOS SAE[culares facit], "Augustus, son of the Divine Julius, presents the Secular Games." On the reverse is the bust of a young male with features resembling Augustus (smaller version), with a four-rayed comet with tail above his head. The figure has been variously identified as an idealized portrait of the deified Julius Caesar or as the Genius of the Secular Games. The inscription names the moneyer, Marcus Sanquinius.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Horace, Carmen Saeculare

silver cistophorus of Augustus, Pergamon mint, 27-26 BCE
The obverse contains a portrait of Augustus (smaller version) with the augur's staff (lituus) in front and the inscription IMP[erator] CAESAR. The reverse depicts a finely detailed female sphinx (smaller version) with the inscription AVGVSTVS.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin; mythical animal

denarius of Augustus, mint of Rome, c. 19 BCE
The obverse contains the head of the personification of Honos (honor, public office), with an inscription naming the moneyer, M[arcus] DVRMIVS III VIR HONORI. There are test cuts on the face of Honos (test cuts were made with a chisel to ensure that the coin was actually silver and not plated). The reverse depicts a kneeling Parthian in striped trousers, who holds out a military standard with a flag (vexillum) marked with an X. The inscription, CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN[is] RECE[ptis], indicates that the coin commemorates the return of the Roman standards lost by Crassus and later Antony to the Parthians that was negotiated by Augustus in 20 BCE.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin

denarius of Augustus, depicting a Gaul kneeling in submission and holding out a Roman standard
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin

denarius of Augustus, depicting a German kneeling in submission and holding out a military trophy
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin

denarius of Augustus, depicting the emperor in his priestly role as augur;
he carries the lituus, the crooked staff that was the symbol this priesthood
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, religion

aureus of Augustus, mint of Lyons, 13-14 CE
The obverse contains a youthful portrait of Augustus (smaller version) wearing a laurel-leaf crown; the inscription reads CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ilius] PATER PATRIAE. The reverse contains a bareheaded portrait of Tiberius (smaller version), his adopted son and designated successor, with the inscription TI[berius] CAESAR AVG[ustus] F[ilius] TR[ibunicia] POT[otestas] XV.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin; succession

copper coin (as) of Augustus, mint of Lyons, c. 10-14 BCE
The obverse depicts Augustus wearing a laurel-leaf crown with the inscription CAESAR PONT[ifex] MAX[imus]. The reverse shows the Great Altar at Lugdunum (Lyons), which Augustus dedicated on 1 August 10 BCE, the very day that the future emperor Claudius was born in that city. The inscription reads ROM[a] ET AVG[ustus].
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: religion

denarius of Octavian, 43 BCE, stressing his adoption by Caesar
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Augustus

denarius of Octavian, 38 BCE, stressing his adoption by Caesar
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Augustus

brass dupondius of Octavian, Italian mint, 38 BCE
The obverse contains the bareheaded portrait of Octavian, encircled by the inscription CAESAR DIVI F[ilius]. The reverse depicts the head of Julius Caesar wearing a laurel-leaf crown, encircled by the inscription DIVOS IVLIVS. Early coins such as this were issued by Octavian to emphasize his adoption by the deified Julius Caesar.
Bergen (Norway), Bergen Museum, University of Bergen. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009

aureus of Octavian, 36 BCE, stressing his adoption by Caesar
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Augustus

aureus of Octavian, 33 BCE, with no inscription, modeled upon coin portraits of Hellenistic rulers
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Augustus

aureus of Octavian, 27 BCE, with "Actium type" of portrait
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Augustus

aureus of Octavian, mint of Rome or Brundisium, 29-27 BCE
The obverse contains the bareheaded portrait of Octavian with no inscription. The reverse depicts Victoria standing on a globe, holding a wreath in her right hand and a vexillum on her shoulder, probably a reference to the statue crowning the pediment of the new Curia Julia. The inscription reads IMP[erator] CAESAR.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005, 2013
Keywords: coin, Augustus

denarius of Octavian, mint of Rome or Brundisium, 32-27 BCE
The obverse contains the bareheaded portrait of Octavian with no inscription. The reverse depicts Victoria standing sideways on a globe, holding a wreath in her right hand and a palm branch on her shoulder, probably a reference to the statue crowning the pediment of the new Curia Julia. The inscription reads CAESAR DIVI F[ilius].
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: coin, Augustus

denarius of Octavian, 29-27 BCE;
larger version.
Depicts a building thought to be the Curia Julia, dedicated by Octavian in 29 BCE. Victoria, standing on a globe and holding a wreath in her right hand crowns the pediment. The legend reads IMP(erator) CAESAR.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, Augustus, city of Rome, Senate House

denarius of Octavian, 29-27 BCE;
smaller version.
Depicts a building thought to be the Curia Julia, dedicated by Octavian in 29 BCE. Victoria, standing on a globe and holding a wreath in her right hand crowns the pediment. The legend reads IMP(erator) CAESAR.
New Haven, Yale Art Gallery. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: coin, Augustus, city of Rome, Senate House

denarius of Octavian, 29-27 BCE
Same issue as previous coin, but different die.
Munich, Münzsammlung. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, Augustus, city of Rome, Senate House

denarius of Octavian; before 31 BCE
smaller version
The head of Venus appears on the obverse; the goddess wears a diadem, earrings, and a necklace with hanging pendants. The reverse depicts Octavian as a military commander.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history

silver quinarius of Octavian; uncertain Italian mint, c. 28 BCE
Reverse depicts the head of Octavian with the legend CAESAR IMP[erator]. The obverse depicts a winged Victory holding a laurel wreath standing on top of a sacred Dionysiac basket (cista mystica) flanked by snakes. The legend, ASIA RECEPTA ("Asia recovered"), refers to his victory over Antony and Cleopatra in the east. Antony had issued several coins celebrating his marriage with Octavia using the cista mystica flanked by snakes, including one with the bust of Octavia on top, and the Victory on this coin has the distinctive hairstyle of Octavia.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

silver cistophorus of Octavian; Ephesus mint, c. 28 BCE
Reverse depicts the head of Octavian wearing a laurel wreath. The legend reads IMP[erator] CAESAR COns[ul} VI LIBERTATIS P[ublicae] R[ei] VINDEX, celebrating Octavian as avenger/protector of the liberty of the state. The obverse depicts a female figure in Roman dress holding a caduceus and identified by the legend as PAX ("Peace"); behind her can be seen the sacred Dionysiac basket (the cista mystica with a snake emerging from it. As on the previous coin, Octavian employs Antony's own imagery against him, since the standing female resembles his sister Octavia, who became a symbol of Antony's rejection of Rome when he divorced her in favor of Cleopatra.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

denarius of Octavian; 31-27 BCE
Reverse depicts a triumphal arch topped with a quadriga and the legend IMP(erator) CAESAR.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

aureus of Octavian, larger version; minted in Gaul, late 43 BCE
The obverse depicts a youthful Octavian, with the inscription C(aius) CAESAR CO(n)S(ul) PONT(ifex) AVG(ur). The reverse is clearly intended to emphasis the young, untried man's adoption by the assassinated Julius Caesar, who is shown wearing a laurel wreath, with the inscription C(aius) CAESAR DICT(tator) PERP(etuus) PONT(ifex) MAX(imus).
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; coin

denarius of Octavian; larger version; 28 BCE
Octavian is depicted on the obverse with an augur's staff (lituus). On the reverse is a crocodile with the words AEGVPTO CAPTA, commemorating his victory over Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; Egypt; coin

aureus of Octavian; 31-27 BCE
Obverse: head of Octavian; larger version
Reverse: triumphal chariot (legend reads CAESAR DIVI F(ilius).
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin; triumph

denarius of Octavian, 30-29 BCE
The obverse of this coin depicts Victory standing on a ship's prow holding a branch and a wreath, probably alluding to the victory at Actium. See below for the coin's reverse.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
Keywords: Augustus; history

denarius of Octavian, 30-29 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of the above coin shows Octavian in a triumphal chariot holding out a laurel branch, probably alluding to the triple triumph he celebrated in August 29 BCE. The inscription reads IMP[erator] CAESAR. See above for the coin's obverse.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

denarius of Octavian, 32-31 BCE;
The obverse of this coin contains a bare-headed portrait of Octavian (smaller version). The reverse depicts Mercury seated on a rock (smaller version), playing a lyre with a traveler's hat (petasus) behind his head. The inscription reads CAESAR DIVI F[ilius].
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

denarius of Octavian, c 32-29 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of a winged Victory. On the reverse, Octavian is shown nude in the guise of Neptune (smaller version), holding a scepter in his left hand and an aplustre (fan-like ornament on a ship's stern) in his right, both alluding to his naval victory over Sextus Pompey in 36 BCE; one foot rests on a globe, symbolizing power over land and sea.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Augustus; history; coin

denarius of Octavian, 29-27 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin depicts a column adorned with ship's beaks (columna rostrata) on top of which stands Octavian, clad only in a military cloak (paludamentum) holding a spear and a sheathed sword. The inscription reads IMP[erator] CAESAR.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history

denarius of Octavian; larger version; 29-27 BCE
Octavian is depicted on the obverse, while the reverse shows a military trophy atop a ship's prow, clearly referring to the naval victory at Actium. The inscription reads IMP(erator) CAESAR.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Augustus; history

denarius of Octavian, 29-27 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin shows a trophy (tropaeum) combining military armor with a ship's rudder and anchor standing atop a ship's prow, clearly referring to the naval victory at Actium. The inscription reads IMP(erator) CAESAR.
Copenhagen National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: Augustus; history

denarius of Octavian; 42 BCE
larger version.
Obverse: head of Octavian; Reverse: Caesar's official seat (sella curulis) with his golden wreath and the words "CAESAR DIC[tator] PER[petuus]."
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, Augustus; history; Julius Caesar

denarius of Octavian, 30-29 BCE;
smaller version.
Obverse: head of a herm with the features of Octavian (smaller version). The thunderbolt behind associates the herm with Jupiter.
Reverse: togate Octavian sitting on the sella curulis (smaller version). The pose is reminiscent of Pheidias's cult statue of Zeus from Olympia, for he holds a winged victory in his right hand.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin, Augustus; history

aureus depicting clasped hands, mint of Rome, 42 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer C. Vibius Varus (spelled G. VEIBIUS VAARUS on coin); the clasped hands symbolize trustworthiness (fides) in an agreement or treaty.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: coin

denarius depicting Juno Sospita, mint of Rome, 80 BCE
The reverse of this coin, issued by the moneyer L. Procilius, shows the goddess holding a shield with her left hand and hurling a spear with her right; a snake rears in front of her. Juno Sospita ("Savior") was imported to Rome from Lanuvium; she is depicted wearing a goatskin helmet with 2 horns and shoes with pointed toes.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, religion

denarius depicting Juno Sospita, mint of Rome, 79 BCE
The obverse of this coin, issued by the moneyer L. Papius, shows the head of the goddess with her characteristic horned goatskin helmet. The plough behind her head is a control symbol; this moneyer used everyday objects as marks to distinguish each die.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, religion

denarius issued by Brutus as moneyer, 54 BCE
depicting head of the goddess Liberty (inscription reads LIBERTAS). Issued under the name Q. Servilius Caepio Brutus, which Marcus Junius Brutus took when he was adopted by his uncle.
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: Republican coin

denarius issued by M. Junius Brutus as moneyer, mint of Rome, 54 BCE
obverse depicts his alleged ancestor Lucius Junius Brutus, consul 509 BCE, who helped to overthrow the Tarquin kings and found the Roman Republic; inscription reads BRVTVS.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Republican coin

denarius issued by Brutus as moneyer, 54 BCE
The obverse shows the head of the goddess Liberty wearing earrings and a necklace; the inscription reads LIBERTAS. The reverse depicts his alleged ancestor Lucius Junius Brutus walking between two lictors carrying fasces, preceded by an accensus; inscription reads BRVTVS.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Republican coin; magistrate; apparitor

denarius issued by M. Junius Brutus as moneyer, mint of Rome, 54 BCE
obverse depicts his alleged ancestor Lucius Junius Brutus, consul 509 BCE, who helped to overthrow the Tarquin kings and found the Roman Republic; inscription reads BRVTVS.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Republican coin

denarius issued by M. Junius Brutus as moneyer, mint of Rome, 54 BCE
reverse depicts his alleged ancestor L. Junius Brutus walking between two lictors carrying fasces, preceded by an accensus; inscription reads BRVTVS.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Republican coin; apparitor; magistrate

denarius of Brutus, western Asia Minor or Macedonia, summer/autumn 42 BCE
Obverse: portrait of Brutus (smaller version), with an inscription naming Brutus as Imperator plus the name of the moneyer, Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus.
Reverse: the cap of liberty (pileus) (smaller version) between two daggers; the inscription reads EID[us] MAR[tiae], "the Ides of March," referring of course to the assassination of Julius Caesar.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin, conspiracy

denarius of Brutus, 42 BCE
reverse depicts the cap of liberty and a pair of daggers; inscription reads EID[us] MAR[tiae], "the Ides of March," referring of course to the assassination of Caesar.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, conspiracy, Julius Caesar

aureus of Brutus, minted in western Asia Minor or Macedonia, 42 BCE
Obverse: head of Brutus, bare headed and bearded, encircled by a laurel wreath, with the inscription BRVTVS IMP[erator].
Reverse: trophy with combined military and naval symbols of victory. The inscription, CASCA LONGVS, names the moneyer.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, conspiracy, Julius Caesar

denarius of Gaius Cassius Longinus, minted in the east, possibly Smyrna, 42 BCE
Obverse: head of Libertas (smaller version), wearing a diadem and veil, with the inscription C[aius] CASSI[us] IMP[erator] LEIBERTAS.
Reverse: religious implements (smaller version), a ritual jug (urceus) and an augur's staff (lituus). The inscription, LENTVLVS SPINT[her], names the moneyer. The symbolism on this coin suggests that the assassination of Caesar was legitimate and justified.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: conspiracy, Julius Caesar; religion

denarius of Julius Caesar; military mint moving with Caesar, 48-47 BCE
Obverse: head of Venus (smaller version) wearing a diadem, oak-leaf wreath, earrings and a pearl necklace.
Reverse: Gallic military trophy (smaller version) holding an oval shield, Gallic helmet, and Gallic trumpet (carnyx); there is an axe topped with an animal head on the right.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: tropaeum; military

denarius of Julius Caesar; Spanish mint, 46-45 BCE; smaller version.
Obverse: head of Venus (smaller version) wearing a diadem, with a tiny Cupid and an augur's staff (lituus) in front.
Reverse: Gallic military trophy (smaller version) with a captured Gaul on one side and a mourning female symbolizing Gallia, defeated, on the other.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: tropaeum; military

denarius of Julius Caesar: 47-46 BCE
Aeneas leaves Troy carrying Anchises and Palladium.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Vergil; Aeneid; mythology; Virgil

denarius of Julius Caesar, Asia Minor, 47-46 BCE
Obverse: head of Venus (smaller version).
Reverse: Aeneas leaves Troy carrying Anchises and the Palladium (smaller version)
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin; Vergil; Aeneid; mythology; Virgil

denarius of Julius Caesar: 47-46 BCE
Aeneas leaves Troy carrying Anchises and Palladium.
Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Vergil; Aeneid; mythology; Virgil

denarius of Julius Caesar, 49 BCE
The obverse of this coin depicts an elephant trampling a serpent (smaller version). The reverse contains religious implements (smaller version) -- a long-handled vessel for pouring libations (simpulum), a staff with horsehair tip for sprinkling water over sacrificial victims (aspergillum), an axe for slaying sacrificial victims (securis), and a leather skull-cap with olive-wood point (apex) worn by flamines. The religious implements emphasize Caesar's position as Pontifex Maximus.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: religion, priesthood, cult

silver denarius of Julius Caesar depicting an elephant stepping on a snake; 49-44 BCE
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003

aureus of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, 46 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the veiled head of a goddess, probably Vesta; the inscription names Caesar as consul for the third time. The reverse contains religious implements -- the augur's curved staff (lituus), a ritual jug (urceus) and a sacrificial axe (securis), emphasizing Caesar's positions as augur and Pontifex Maximus. The inscription names the moneyer, Aulus Hirtius.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: religion, priesthood, cult

aureus of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, 46 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin depicts three religious implements -- the augur's curved staff (lituus), a ritual jug (urceus) and a sacrificial axe (securis), emphasizing Caesar's positions as augur and Pontifex Maximus. The inscription names the moneyer, Aulus Hirtius.
Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: religion, priesthood, cult

denarius of Julius Caesar depicting a military trophy; 48-47 BCE
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: army, weapons

silver denarius of Julius Caesar depicting 2 female captives beneath a military trophy; 49-44 BCE
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: army, weapons

denarius of Julius Caesar; larger version; 44 BCE
The inscription, CAESAR DICT. QUART. indicates that Caesar has been dictator 4 times; Caesar was the first Roman to put his portrait on a coin while he was still living.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001, 1999.

denarius of Julius Caesar; 44 BCE
The inscription, CAESAR DICT. QUART. indicates that Caesar has been dictator 4 times (NB: coin has the same design as the previous coin but a different portrait).
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001.

denarius of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, early 44 BCE, Marcus Mettius as moneyer
The obverse of this coin bears a striking portrait of the aging Caesar, wearing a laurel-leaf crown, with two ritual instruments behind his head--the curved augur's staff (lituus) and a priestly vessel used to pour libations (simpulum).
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006

denarius of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, 44 BCE
The inscription, CAESAR DICT. QUART. indicates that Caesar has been dictator 4 times (NB: coin has the same design as the two previous coins but a different portrait).
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2002.

denarius of Julius Caesar; 46-44 BCE
Caesar is shown wearing the laurel wreath; there is no legend.
Chicago, Art Institute. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: coin

posthumous denarius of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, 43 BCE
The obverse of this coin bears a somewhat idealized portrait of Julius Caesar, wearing a laurel-leaf crown (smaller version). The reverse depicts a standing goddess (smaller version), perhaps Venus or Fortuna, holding a scepter and a caduceus. The inscription names the moneyer, Lucius Flaminius Chilo.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

posthumous denarius of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, April 44 BCE
The obverse of this coin bears a portrait of Julius Caesar, wearing a laurel-leaf crown (smaller version), with a star behind. The legend reads CAESAR IMP[erator]. The reverse depicts Venus standing (smaller version), holding a winged Victory in her right hand and a scepter with a star at its base with her left. The inscription names the moneyer, Publius Sepullius Macer.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

posthumous denarius of Julius Caesar, mint of Rome, April 44 BCE
The obverse of this coin bears a portrait of Julius Caesar, wearing a laurel-leaf crown with his toga pulled over his head (capite velato), with a tiny priest's cap (apex) behind and an augur's staff (lituus) in front. The inscription reads CAESAR PARENS PATRIAE. The reverse depicts the moneyer's name, Gaius Cossutius Maridianus, arranged in the form of a cross around the letter V.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, minted at Ascalon, 50/49 BCE
The youthful Cleopatra is shown in the style of earlier Hellenistic queens, with a band-style diadem; she wears the melon hairstyle. Ascalon may have minted this coin to show its support for Cleopatra during her exile from Egypt while she struggled with her younger brother for control of the throne of Egypt.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
Keywords: coin, Hellenistic queen

bronze coin of Cleopatra VII, Egypt
shows youthful head of Cleopatra with melon hairstyle and band-style diadem.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: Hellenistic queen

bronze coin of Cleopatra VII, c. 35 BCE, Cyprus;
larger version. Cleopatra is depicted with her infant Caesarion, claimed as the son of Julius Caesar.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
Keywords: Hellenistic queen

bronze coin of Cleopatra VII, c. 35 BCE, Cyprus;
Cleopatra is depicted with her infant Caesarion, claimed as the son of Julius Caesar.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: Hellenistic queen

silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII
The queen is shown as a mature woman with her characteristic melon hairstyle and broad diadem.
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
Keywords: coin, Hellenistic queen

bronze 80 drachma coin of Cleopatra VII, Alexandria, 51-30 BCE;
smaller version.
This coin depicts a youthful Cleopatra with melon hairstyle and band-style diadem.
Glasgow, Hunterian Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009
Keywords: Hellenistic queen

silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, c. 36-34 BCE, possibly from Syrian mint
Obverse: Cleopatra; larger image. The queen is shown wearing a broad diadem and a striking necklace of large pearls. The Greek legend means "Queen Cleopatra, Younger Goddess."
Reverse: Antony; larger image. Antony is shown as a virile man with curly hair; the Greek legend means "Antony Imperator for the third time and Triumvir."
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, Hellenistic queen

silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, c. 36-34 BCE, possibly from Syrian mint
larger version. This is the obverse of the coin, showing the queen wearing a broad diadem and a striking necklace of large pearls. The Greek legend means "Queen Cleopatra, Younger Goddess."
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin, Hellenistic queen

tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, mint uncertain, 37-32 BCE
larger version. The reverse of the coin, shown here, contains a portrait of Mark Antony.The Greek inscription reads "Antony, Imperator for the third time and Triumvir."
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001; 2006
Keywords: Hellenistic queen

portrait of Cleopatra VII on denarius of Mark Antony, 32 BCE
It is now believed that this is the obverse of these coins, with Antony's portrait appearing on the reverse. The queen wears a band-style diadem and a ship's prow appears in front of her, referring to her Egyptian fleet.
Chicago, Art Institute. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Hellenistic queen; coin

portrait of Cleopatra VII on denarius of Mark Antony, 32 BCE
It is now believed that this is the obverse of these coins, with Antony's portrait appearing on the reverse. The queen wears a band-style diadem and a ship's prow appears in front of her, referring to her Egyptian fleet.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: Hellenistic queen; coin

denarius with posthumous portrait of Pompey the Great, c. 44/43 BCE
head of Pompey is surrounded with imagery of the sea--name of the god Neptune, dolphin, trident.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, Pompeius Magnus

denarius with posthumous portrait of Pompey the Great
struck in Cantana, Sicily, 42-38 BCE. The head of Pompey is flanked by religious imagery -- a ritual urn and the augur's staff (lituus).
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2002
Keywords: coin, Pompeius Magnus

denarius of Sextus Pompeius; Sicilian mint, 40 BCE
Depicts a posthumous portrait of Pompey the Great; he is flanked by religious symbols (a lituus in front and a urceus, ritual jug, behind). The legend reads MAG(nus) PIVS IMP(erator) ITER.
Chicago, Art Institute. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: Pompeius Magnus; coin

denarius of Sextus Pompeius; Sicilian mint, 44-43 BCE
The obverse of this coin bears a posthumous portrait of Pompey the Great (smaller version), father of Sextus Pompey, with a trident in front and dolphin behind; the inscription reads NEPTVNI. On the reverse appears a Roman warship (smaller version), with billowing sail and a star following; the inscription names the moneyer, Quintus Nasidius.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Pompeius Magnus; galley

denarius of Sextus Pompeius; Sicilian mint, 42-40 BCE
The obverse of this coin depicts the lighthouse at Messana (smaller version), topped with a statue of Neptune with his foot on a ship's prow, holding a trident and a rudder. In front of the lighthouse is a warship with a legionary eagle at its prow and a trident and scepter at its stern. The inscription reads MAG[nus] PIVS IMP[erator] ITER. On the reverse, the sea-monster Scylla (smaller version), raging dogs emerging from her loins, brandishes a ship's rudder. The inscription, PRAEF[ectus] ORAE MARI[timae] ET CLAS[sis] S[enatus] C[onsulto], refers to Sextus Pompey's title of Prefect of the fleet.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Pompeius Magnus; galley; mythological monster

early Republican silver quadrigatus coin, c. 238-211 BCE
Silver coins issued after the Roman victory over Carthage in the First Punic War were called quadrigati (meaning "four-horsed") because of their standard design. The obverse showed a beardless two-headed Janus, the god whose shrine in the Roman Forum was closed to mark the end of war (in this case to signal the defeat of Carthage in 241 BCE). The reverse showed Jupiter hurling a thunderbolt from a four-horsed chariot driven by Victory.
obverse: Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
reverse: Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican aureus, mint of Rome, 43 BCE;
The obverse of this coin contains the head of the personification of the province of Africa, a draped female wearing an elephant cap, with large ears, tusks, and a trunk. The names of the moneyers, Lucius Cestius and Gaius Norbanus, appear on the reverse.
Berlin, Bode Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican aureus, mint of Rome, 42 BCE;
smaller version.
The obverse of this coin contains the head of Ceres, goddess of agriculture and fertility, with long, flowing hair and a wreath of grain stalks. The name of the moneyer, Lucius Mussidius Longus, appears on the reverse.
Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Demeter

Republican denarius with Roma and Dioscuri, c. 212-206 BCE
This design was standard after the weight and silver content of the denarius had been reduced by about 50%; the coin was popularly called bigatus ("two-horsed") because of its design and lighter weight. The obverse showed the helmeted head of the goddess Roma, usually with an X behind to indicate the value of 10 asses. The reverse showed Castor and Pollux (the divine twins to whom the Romans ascribed their victory in the Battle of Lake Regillus) on galloping horses, usually with stars over their heads.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican denarius with Romulus and Remus, minted at Rome, 137 BCE
smaller version.
This coin was issued by Sextus Pompeius as moneyer. The obverse depicts the shepherd Faustulus finding the she-wolf suckling the twins Romulus and Remus beneath a fig tree in which a bird perches (the ficus Ruminalis).
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican denarius with the Dioscuri, c. 109-108 BCE
This coin was issued by Lucius Memmius as moneyer. The obverse shows the head of a young male god, probably Apollo, wearing an oak-leaf wreath. The reverse shows Castor and Pollux standing between their horses, facing front, with stars over their heads. The inscription reads L MEMMI.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005

silver coin of Piso and Caepio—grain dole: AD FRU(mentum) EMV(ndum) EX S(enatus) C(onsulto); 100 BCE
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: annona, Roman politics, food

bronze ticket for collecting grain dole, from Italy
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: annona, Roman politics, food

denarius of Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Publius Plautius Hypsaeus, mint of Rome, 58 BCE
This coin was minted during the curule aedileship of Scaurus and Hypsaeus (note CVR AED on both sides of the coin). The obverse portrays Aretas III, King of Nabatea, kneeling beside a camel (smaller version) and holding out an olive branch, commemorating the surrender of Aretas to Scaurus in 62 BCE. The reverse depicts Jupiter in a four-horse chariot (smaller version) brandishing a thunderbolt, with a scorpion below the horses' hooves. The inscription also commemorates the moneyer's ancestor, Gaius Hypsaeus, a consul who captured Privernum, a city state in Italy, in the fourth century BCE.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican denarius of Publius Accoleius Lariscolus as moneyer, mint of Rome, 43 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of Diana Nemorensis (smaller version) from her sanctuary at Nemi; the inscription names the moneyer. The reverse depicts the goddess in triple form (smaller version), as Diana (on the left holding a bow), Hecate, and Selene (on the right holding a flower). Behind the goddesses can be seen five cypress trees from the temple compound.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords; religion; cult; Artemis; Hekate

Republican denarius of Cornelius Faustus Sulla as moneyer, mint of Rome, 56 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of Diana/Luna (smaller version) wearing a diadem with crescent moon, earrings, and a necklace, with an augur's staff (lituus) behind. The inscription names the moneyer. The reverse depicts an historical event (smaller version) from the early career of Faustus's famous father, Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, the dictator. Sulla sits on a podium while King Brocchus I of Mauretania kneels before him holding out an olive branch. King Jugurtha of Numidia kneels on the right, with his hands bound behind him. This scene was also depicted on Sulla's signet ring, since persuading Brocchus to betray his son-in-law Jugurtha to Sulla was the event that launched his career.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords; history; Jugurthine War

early Roman silver coin in Greek style, 3rd century BCE
Obverse depicts Romulus, Remus and Wolf.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: foundation of Rome; legend

Republican denarius depicting Romulus, Remus, wolf; 137 BCE
Issued by moneyer Sextus Pompeius; figure on the left is the shepherd Fastulus, who found the boys being suckled by the wolf.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: foundation of Rome; legend

early Roman coin (didrachm) depicting Romulus, Remus, wolf; 269-266 BCE
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: foundation of Rome; legend

Republican coin from war against Hannibal; larger photo of this coin, c. 217 BCE
gold stater issued by mint of Rome depicting Roman soldier with captives.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001

Republican denarius with voting scene, mint of Rome, 113-112 BCE
larger version
drawing of this coin, which was issued by moneyer P. Licinius Nerva
This coin provides an excellent depiction of the voting process. Two voters are casting their ballots in the Comitium; the voter at left receives a tablet from smaller attendant below, while the voter at right, after crossing the pons (bridge) places his tablet in a cista (voting urn).
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004

Republican denarius with voting scene, mint of Rome, 113-112 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of Roma, holding a spear and shield and wearing a helmet with two feathers. The reverse depicts two voters casting their ballots. The inscription names the moneyer, Publius Licinius Nerva.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican denarius with voting scene, mint of Rome, 63 BCE
Depicts a male citizen dropping a "Yes" voting tablet into the cista (voting urn); the V stands for Vti rogas ("as you ask").
This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Cassius Longinus to commemorate an ancestor who passed the Lex Cassia Tabellaria, a law which changed the voting method to secret balloting.
Munich, Münzsammlung. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005

Republican denarius with Sibylla, mint of Rome, 65 BCE, Lucius Manlius Torquatus as moneyer
The obverse of this coin bears the head of the Sibyl of Cumae wreathed with ivy; she wears the woolen fillets tied at intervals (infulae) that denoted religious consecration. The inscription reads SIBYLLA.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: religion; cult

Republican denarius with Sibylla, mint of Rome, 65 BCE, Lucius Manlius Torquatus as moneyer
The obverse of this coin bears the head of the Sibyl of Cumae wreathed with ivy, with the letters [Si]BY[lla] below.
Krakow, Gallery of Ancient Art (Czartoryski Museum, National Museum). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2011

Republican denarius with Janus, mint of Rome, 119 BCE, Marcus Furius Philus as moneyer
The obverse of this coin depicts a two-headed bearded Janus encircled by the inscription M[arcus] FOVRI[us] L[uci] F[ilius], while the reverse shows the goddess Roma standing before a trophy and crowning it with a wreath; she holds a scepter in her left hand.
Krakow, Gallery of Ancient Art (Czartoryski Museum, National Museum). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2011

Republican denarius with Ulysses and Argus, mint of Rome, 82 BCE
The moneyer issuing this serrated denarius was C. Mamilius Limetanus, indicated by the inscription C. MAMIL LIMETAN. The reverse of the coin, shown here, depicts a scene from Homer's Odyssey, when Odysseus returns home disguised as a beggar but is recognized by his faithful dog, Argos. The moneyer's family claimed descent from Mamilia, the daughter Telegonus, the mythological son of Odysseus and Circe.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Calliope, muse of epic poetry, playing a cithara that rests on a column. This is one of the largest series of denarii produced by a single moneyer, since Pomponius Musa (punning on his cognomen) minted coins featuring reverses with Hercules playing a lyre and each of the nine muses, apparently referring to the 10 statues of Hercules and the Muses brought back from Greece by Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, the founder of the Temple of Hercules of the Muses (Aedes Herculis Musarum) in the Campus Martius, after his conquest of Ambracia in 189 BCE.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of Apollo (smaller version), with upswept hair bound by a laurel-leaf crown; behind his head is a lyre key, used for tuning the instrument. This obverse type was used for all the coins in the series depicting Muses, only varying in the attribute shown behind the god's head. The reverse of this coin shows Calliope, muse of epic poetry (smaller version), playing a cithara that rests on a column.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Clio, muse of history, holding an open scroll in her right hand and resting her left elbow on a column. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is a scroll tied with a cord.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Erato, muse of lyric poetry and love elegy, wearing flowers in her hair and playing a lyre. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is a flower on a stalk.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Euterpe, muse of music, leaning on a column and clasping two flutes (tibiae) in her right hand. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is two crossed flutes.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Melpomene, muse of tragedy, holding a tragic mask in her left hand and Hercules' club in her right; she wears a sword at her waist. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is a scepter (see below).
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The obverse of the above coin of Melpomene contains the head of the god Apollo, with upswept hair bound by a laurel-leaf crown; behind his head is a scepter. This obverse type was used for all the coins in the series depicting Muses, only varying in the attribute shown behind the god's head.
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Polymnia (sometimes called Polyhymnia), muse of sacred music, rhetoric, and pantomime; she wears a wreath with long ribbons or fillets flowing down on either side of her head and is draped in an enveloping mantle. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is a wreath.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Terpsichore, muse of choral poetry and dance, holding a lyre in her right hand and a plectrum in her left. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is either a tortoise (because of its association with the lyre) or a flower on a stalk.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Thalia, muse of comedy and pastoral, looking at a comic mask that she holds in her right hand; her left arm rests on a column and cradles a shepherd's crook (pedum). The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is a slipper (the soccus worn by comic actors).
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Urania, muse of astronomy and cosmology; she holds a rod with which she points to a globe that rests on a tripod. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer. The attribute behind Apollo's head on this coin is a star.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008

Republican silver denarius, Quintus Pomponius Musa as moneyer, 66 BCE
The reverse of this coin shows Urania, muse of astronomy and cosmology; she holds a rod with which she points to a globe that rests on a tripod. The inscription, Q[uintus] POMPONI[us] MUSA refers to the moneyer.
Paris, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque Nationale. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009.

Republican denarius with the goddess Cybele, Rome mint, 84 BCE
The obverse contains the head of Cybele wearing a mural crown with turrets, with a small foot behind her head; the inscription reads AED[ilis] CVR[ulis]. The reverse depicts a draped curule chair (sella curulis) inscribed P[ublius] FOVRIVS, with CRASSIPES below. The inscriptions refer to the moneyer, Publius Furius Crassipes, who held the office of curule aedile. The foot is apparently a pun on his cognomen, which could be interpreted to mean "thick foot."
Bergen (Norway), Bergen Museum, University of Bergen. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009
Keywords: coin; Magna Mater; magistrate

Republican denarius with the goddess Libertas, Rome mint, 126 BCE
The obverse contains the helmeted head of Roma, with a voting-urn and crossed X (indicatng the current value of 16 asses) behind. The reverse depicts the goddess Libertas driving a quadriga (four-horsed chariot); she holds a pileus (cap of liberty) and a staff. The inscription C[aius] CASSI[us] refers to the moneyer, Gaius Cassius, while the word ROMA appears at the bottom of the coin.
Bergen (Norway), Bergen Museum, University of Bergen. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2009

Republican denarius depicting Gaius Marius in triumphal chariot, c. 100 BCE
issued by moneyer Fundanius.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin; triumph

denarius depicting veiled and diademed head of the goddess Concordia, 42 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Mussidius Longus; a crescent appears beneath the chin of the goddess.
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004

Republican denarius depicting Ceres, mint of Rome, 56 BCE
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin, issued by Gaius Memmius as moneyer, shows the goddess Ceres seated on backless chair, holding a torch and ears of wheat, with a bearded snake at her feet. The inscription reads MEMMIVS AED[ilis] CERIALIA PREIMVS FECIT, referring to an ancestor of the moneyer who apparently held the first Cerialia festival.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin; religion; Games of Ceres; Demeter

Republican denarius depicting Ceres, mint of Rome, 78 BCE
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin, issued by Marcus Volteius as moneyer, shows the goddess Ceres, holding a lighted torch in each hand, driving a chariot pulled by two bearded snakes (there is a control symbol behind the goddess).
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin; religion; Demeter

Republican denarius depicting Cybele, mint of Rome, 78 BCE
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin, issued by Marcus Volteius as moneyer, shows Cybele, the Great Mother goddess, driving a chariot pulled by two lions (there is a Greek letter control symbol above).
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: coin; religion; Magna Mater

Republican denarius depicting the Columna Minucia, Caius Minucius Augurinus as moneyer, 135 BCE;
smaller version.
The reverse of this coin depicts a column surmounted by a togate statue, with bells hanging on either side. The column is flanked by two males wearing togas, perhaps representing statues; the man on the right holds the augur's curved staff (lituus), while the other man may be holding a loaf of bread. At the base of the column are two lion heads, each topped with a grain of wheat. The coin celebrates a bronze column erected outside the Porta Trigemina in honor of the moneyer's ancestor, Lucius Minucius Augurinus, who as praefectus annonae in 439 BCE successfully reduced the price of grain and saved the populace from famine.
New Haven, Yale Art Gallery. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2013
Keywords: city of Rome; honorific column

Republican denarius of Quintus Cassius Longinus as moneyer, mint of Rome, 55 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of the personification of Libertas (smaller version), wearing earrings and a necklace. The reverse depicts the curule chair (sella curulis) in the round Temple of Vesta (smaller version), flanked by a voting urn and the letters AC (for the two possible votes, Absolvo or Condemno), referring to the judicial authority conferred on his ancestor in 113 BCE in an investigation involving Vestal Virgins.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: religion

Republican denarius; 55 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer by Q. Cassius Longinus. The reverse depicts the curule chair (sella curulis) in the round Temple of Vesta, flanked by a voting urn and the letters AC (for the two possible votes, Absolvo or Condemno), referring to the judicial authority conferred on his ancestor in 113 BCE in an investigation involving Vestal Virgins.
Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: religion

Republican denarius issued by Q. Pompeius Rufus, mint of Rome, 55-54 BCE
smaller version.
This coin commemorates the moneyer's two grandfathers, who were consuls in the same year (88 BCE). The obverse of the coin refers to Quintus Pompeius Rufus, (smaller version), whose curule chair is flanked by an arrow and a laurel branch. The reverse of the coin refers to L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, (smaller version), whose authority is symbolized by a curule chair flanked by an augur's staff (lituus) and a wreath.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: sella curulis

Republican denarius issued by moneyer Q. Pompeius Rufus, mint of Rome, 55-54 BCE
Another coin commemorating the moneyer's two grandfathers, this time with portrait heads. The obverse contains the portrait of Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (smaller version), thought to be the only authentic coin portrait of the famous dictator. The reverse contains the portrait of Quintus Pompeius Rufus (smaller version), also consul in 88 BCE.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican denarius depicting Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, consul 88 BCE, c. 54 BCE
issued by moneyer Q. Pompeius Rufus, Sulla's maternal grandson.
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2002
Keywords: coin

Republican denarius issued by P. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, mint of Rome, 50 BCE
This coin commemorates the moneyer's famous ancestor, M. Claudius Marcellus (smaller version), who served as consul 5 times in the late third century CE. Behind his head is a triskeles (an ancient symbol consisting of three bent legs). On the reverse (smaller version), Marcellus is shown with his toga pulled over his head, carrying the spoils (spolia opima) he won by killing an enemy king during the conquest of Cisalpine Gaul in 222 BCE. The temple is presumably that of Jupiter Feretrius on the Capitoline, where the spolia opima were deposited.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican denarius issued by L. Marcius Philippus, mint of Rome, 56 BCE
Obverse: Ancus Marcius (smaller version), fourth king of Rome and ancestor of the moneyer's family, the gens Marcia. The king is shown wearing a diadem, with an augur's staff (lituus) and his name behind.
Reverse: Equestrian statue atop an aqueduct (smaller version), the Aqua Marcia. The statue may refer to another ancestor of the moneyer, the praetor Q. Marcius Rex, who received a commission from the Senate in 144 BC to build the aqueduct that bears his nomen. A plant is shown growing on the top of the aqueduct, whose five arches on the coin contain the inscription AQVA M[a]R[cia], while the name of the moneyer, PHILIPPVS, appears on the left.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012

Republican denarius issued by L. Marcius Philippus, mint of Rome, 56 BCE
Reverse: equestrian statue atop an aqueduct; see description of previous coin.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: coin; city of Rome, Aqua Marcia

Republican denarius issued by L. Pomponius Molo, c. 97 BCE
Larger version. The obverse shows the head of Apollo wearing a laurel wreath with the name of the moneyer. The reverse depicts the early Roman king Numa Pompilius holding the augur's staff (lituus) and standing before an altar at which he is about to sacrifice a goat held by a youth. The Pomponian gens were supposedly descended from a son of Numa.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2005
Keywords: coin, religion, early history of Rome

Republican denarius issued by L. Pomponius Molo, c. 97 BCE
This is a different issue of the above coin depicting Numa Pompilius sacrificing.
Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
Keywords: coin, religion, early history of Rome

denarius of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, 49-48 BCE
Obverse depicts the head of the early Roman king Numa Pompilius with the word NVMA on his diadem. This coin was struck by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, who served as proquaestor to the Pompeian party in Spain during the war between Caesar and Pompey. The head of Numa Pompilius records the claim of the gens Calpurnia to be descended from Calpus, the son of Numa.
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: coin, religion, early history of Rome, Pompey

Republican denarius depicting Basilica Aemilia, 61 BCE
issued by moneyer M. Lepidus celebrating the structure built by his ancestors in the Forum.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
Keywords: city of Rome; coin

Republican denarius depicting Basilica Aemilia, 61 BCE
Marcus Lepidus, later to become a triumvir, issued this coin to celebrate the renovation carried out by his father, the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who added decorations of shields and family portraits to the basiliica's facade in 78 BCE. The legend reads AIMILIA REF(ecta) M(arcus) LEPIDUS S(enatus) C(onsulto).
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: city of Rome; coin

Republican denarius of three female archaic cult statues , 43 BCE
issued by moneyer P. Accoleius Lariscolus referring to statues in his home town of Aricia.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin; religion

Republican denarius depicting head of captured Gaul, 48 BCE
issued by moneyer L. Hostilius Saserna referring to Caesar's campaigns in Gaul.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: Julius Caesar; coin

Republican denarius depicting male portrait, 47 BCE
issued by moneyer C. Antius Restio with portrait of his father.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin

Republican denarius depicting winged Victory driving a chariot, minted at Rome, 89 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Titurius Sabinus; L. TITURI appears beneath the horses' feet, and the goddess holds up a wreath.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: Nike, social war

Republican denarius depicting King Tatius, minted at Rome, 89 BCE
According to legend, Tatius was King of the Sabines when the Romans carried off the Sabine women; in the subsequent war, Tatius captured the citadel of Rome through the treachery of Tarpeia. This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Titurius Sabinus; SABIN is inscribed on the coin.
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2006
Keywords: legend, early history, Livy

Republican denarius depicting the Rape of the Sabine Women, minted at Rome, 89 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Titurius Sabinus; L. TITURI appears at the bottom of the coin. Two Roman men carry off protesting Sabine maidens.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: legend, early history, Livy, social war

Republican denarius depicting Tarpeia crushed by the shields of the Sabines, minted at Rome, 89 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Titurius Sabinus; L. TITURI appears at the bottom of the coin. Tarpeia raises her arms in terror as two Sabine soldiers prepare to crush her with their shields for her betrayal of Rome.
Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004
Keywords: legend, early history, Livy, social war

Republican denarius depicting Tarpeia crushed by the shields of the Sabines, minted at Rome, 89 BCE
This coin was issued by the moneyer L. Titurius Sabinus; L. TITURI appears at the bottom of the coin. Tarpeia raises her arms in terror as two Sabine soldiers prepare to crush her with their shields for her betrayal of Rome.
Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2010
Keywords: legend, early history, Livy, social war

Republican denarius, minted at Rome, 78 BCE
smaller version.
This coin was issued by Marcus Volteius as moneyer; M VOLTEI M F appears at the bottom of the coin. The reverse depicts the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline, with triple doors closed and thunderbolt on the pediment.
Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: city of Rome; religion

Republican denarius, mint of Rome, 57 BCE
The obverse of this coin contains the head of Venus (smaller version), wearing a diadem, laurel-leaf crown, earrings, and necklace; the inscription names the moneyer, Gaius Considius Nonianus. On the reverse is depicted the Temple of Venus Erycina (smaller version), located on Mount Eryx in Sicily, showing the city walls and gate.
Berlin, Altes Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2012
Keywords: Aphrodite; religion

denarius from Social War, c. 90 BCE
depicts bull of Italy trampling wolf of Rome; inscription is in Oscan.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 90 BCE
depicts former allies taking oath against Rome; inscription is in Oscan.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 91-87 BCE
depicts personification of new state Italia as goddess (Latin inscription).
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 91-87 BCE
depicts oath scene of Italian confederation.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 91-87 BCE
depicts winged Victory crowning seated Italia.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 91-87 BCE
depicts winged Victory crowning helmeted head of Italia.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 91-87 BCE
depicts warrior with bull, symbol of Italia.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

denarius from Social War, c. 91-87 BCE
depicts warriors shaking hands with prow of ship in background.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2001
Keywords: coin, allies

small bronze coin from Poseidonia/Paestum, late first century BCE
The local senate of Paestum issued this unusual coin to honor a powerful woman, whose name appears on the obverse of the coin, MINEIA M[arci] F[ilia] next to a female head that may bear the features of Mineia but is more probably a depiction of a goddess. Mineia, daughter of Marcus Mineius, was the widow of a local dignitary, Gaius Cocceius Flaccus, and was a major benefactor of the city, as is known from surviving inscriptions. The reverse of the coin depicts an elaborate building, apparently the basilica in the Paestan forum paid for by Mineia.
London, British Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2008
Keywords: women patrons

Go to Index, Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V, Part VI, Part VII, Part VIII, Part IX, Part X, Part XI, Part XII, Part XIII, Part XIV, Part XV, Roman Coins: Empire, Greek Coins, Coins from the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, Coins from the National Museum in Warsaw, Poland, Coins from the Hunterian Museum

revised September 2013