Index of Images, Part VI: Ann R. Raia

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Honorary Bronze Medal
Julia Mamea is seated on a throne with an attendant by her side. Inscribed: MATR(IS?) AUGUSTI ET CASTRORUM. 224-235 CE.
Charlottenburg, Museum of Prehistory and Early History. Credits: Ann Raia, 2005.
Keywords: Empire, Empress

Aureus of Probus.
The emperor, dressed for battle, stands on a podium addressing his troops. Inscribed ADLOCUTIO AUG[USTI]. 276-82 CE.
Charlottenburg, Museum of Prehistory and Early History Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2005.
Keywords: coin, empire

Bust of Perikles.
Roman copy of the Kresilas statue from the akropolis at Lesbos. 429 BCE.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2005.
Keywords: sculpture, Athens

Silver strigils on a holder with oil flask.
Rome, 1st century BCE.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2005.
Keywords: athlete, exercise equipment

Bronze Fountain Sculpture Cybele in chariot drawn by lions.
Side view. Detail. Roman, 2nd half 2nd century BCE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: goddess, cult, eastern, religion.

Terracotta Covered Urn painted with a wedding scene.
Made for a tomb. Pictured are four women: mother at left (?), pronuba at right (?), musician with drum and veiled bride in center: Detail. Centuripe, 3-2 century BCE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: women, wedding, dress, ritual, pottery, funerary.

Marble Grave Relief: busts of a couple.
Plaque intended for an outdoor monument which would have contained their names; probably freedpersons; Augustan hairstyles. Roman, 13 BCE-5 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, funerary.

Marble Sculpture of a young woman wrapped in a cloak.
Side view. Roman; copy of a Greek work (3/2 century BCE). 1/2nd century CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: women, dress.

Gold solidus of Constantine I
Bust of the empress Fausta, his wife, with inscription: FLAV[ia] MAX[ima] FAVSTA AVG[usta]. Ticinum, 324/5 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Gold aureus of Antoninus Pius
Bust of the empress Faustina, his wife, with inscription: DIVA FAVSTINA. Rome, 141 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Silver denarius of Caracalla
Bust of the empress Plautilla, his wife, with inscription: PLAVTILLAE AUGVSTAE. Rome, 202-5 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Gold aureus of Septimius Severus
Bust of the empress Julia Domna, his wife; inscription: IVLIA DOMNA AVG. Rome, 193-6 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Orichalcum sestertius of Alexander Severus
Bust of the emperor's mother, Julia Mamaea; inscription (partially worn): IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA. Rome, 222-35 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Gold aureus of Emperor Didius Julianus
Bust of his wife, Manlia; inscription: MANL[ia] SCANTILLA AVG. Rome, 193 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Bronze nummus of Constantine I
Bust of the Emperor's mother Helena; inscription: FL[avia] HELENA AVGVSTA. Cyzicus, 324/5 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: portrait, coin, empire, relief, women.

Gold aureus of Caesar
Veiled head of Vesta; inscription C CAESAR COS TER (consul for the third time). Rome, 46 BCE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: religion, coin, relief, republic.

Gold aureus of Caesar
Veiled head of Vesta; inscription C[aius} CAESAR COS TER (consul for the third time), moneyer A. Hirtius. Rome, 46 BCE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: religion, coin, relief, republic.

Gold aureus of Pertinax
Bust of the emperor; inscription IMP[erator] CAES[ar] P[ius] HELV[ius] PERTIN[ax] AVG[ustus]. Rome, 193 CE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, coin, relief.

Silver denarius of Caesar
Aeneas flees Troy with Anchises on his left shoulder, holding the palladium in his right hand; inscription: CAESAR. Africa, 47-6 BCE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: religion, coin, politics, relief.

Silver denarius of Brutus
The consul of 509 BCE, Junius Brutus, preceeds 3 lictors; inscription: BRVTVS. Rome, 54 BCE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: coin, republic, politics, relief.

Young Etruscan Woman
Life-size terracotta sculpture of an elegantly dressed female wearing elaborate jewelry, perhaps molded on real pieces. Smaller. Late 4-early 3rd century BCE. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: women, dress.

Marble Sarcophagus: education of Dionysus.
Left detail. Right detail. 2nd century CE after Greek Hellenistic original. Found at Nepi. Capitoline Museum (Nuovo). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: religion, funerary sculpture, child, family.

Bronze sestertius of Caligula
Portrait head of his mother, Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Agrippa, wife of Germanicus; inscription: AGRIPPINA M[arci] F[ilia] MAT[er] C[ai] CAESARIS AUGUSTI. Rome, 37-41 CE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: coin, relief, empire, women.

Silphium: stem of the plant
on a bronze didrachma of Cyrene; its economy was dependent on export of this herb which was used for seasoning and medicine (a close equivalent was the native Roman plant asafoetida). 300-260 BCE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: herb, coin, trade.

Dioscuri: the reverse of a silver denarius, weighing 80 gr, a new coinage introduced c. 212 BCE.
Under the image of the celestial twins, protectors of Rome and symbol of alliance with the Italian Socii, is the inscription ROMA. The obverse contains the head of the Goddess Roma, marked with the letter X, an indication of its value (worth 10 asses; the bronze as is the basic unit of Roman money). Rome, 211 BCE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: religion, money, god.

Etruscan Cinerary urn alabaster
Cover: reclining veiled woman with a fan and pomegranate. Urn relief: Paris sitting on the ship; winged figure in center and right; Helen being led aboard. 2nd century BCE, Volterra. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: funerary sculpture, myth.

Mother goddess: limestone
Seated on throne holding child. Hellenistic, 4-3 century BCE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: religion, sculpture, family.

Apollo: marble relief
The god is seated on the omphalos at Delphi observing his flaming altar, his elbow on a herm pillar. 2nd century CE.Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: religion, sculpture, myth.

Marble Sarcophagos
Relief of children playing on the front. 170-80 CE.Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: funerary sculpture, domestic.

Marble Sarcophagos
Relief of the Greeks battling the Amazons. Greek 320 BCE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: funerary sculpture, myth.

Double-sided Marble Mask Relief
Comic masks of senex, young female and male, lyre, drums, Eros, props of theatrical performance. Roman, first half 2nd century CE. Back: incised male & female tragic masks facing each other with a pillar between. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: sculpture, comedy, tragedy, drama, theater.

Marble Mask: Comic slave
Roman, 1 century BCE/1 century CE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: sculpture, comic drama, theater.

Marble Relief: Bull prepared for sacrifice
1 century CE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: sculpture, religion, animal.

Marble Relief
The god Mithras slays the bull in a cave sanctuary flanked by acolytes. Roman, 2nd half 2nd century CE. From Aquileia. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: religion, myth.

Red Figure Volute Krater
Achilles lifts the body of Penthesilea while above Nike offers him a crown and Amazons look on. Apulian. 2nd quarter 4th century BCE. From Taranto workshop. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: vase, myth, war, Troy.

Fresco Married couple
From the reception room in the villa of P. Fannius Synistor. Boscoreale, 50-40 BCE. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: wedding, women, house.

Round Plaster Relief Enthroned woman (Helen? Venus?) being crowned by Eros.
Above her are the hats and stars of the two Dioscuroi, the brothers of Helen. The seated woman is flanked by a youth holding a phiale and cornucopia and a woman holding a cornucopia. From Egypt, 1 century CE (made from a Greek metal plaque of the 3rd century BCE). New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: women, religion, goddess.

Rape of the Sabines, Marble sculpture
Florence: Loggia. Credits: Ann Raia, 2004.
Keywords: women, myth, Early Rome.

Marble head of a young woman
Her hairdo is fashioned like that of Faustina the Elder, with braids wound around her head. Side view. Roman, Antonine period(138-161CE). NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: hair, dress, empire.

Marble head of a young woman; Roman
Her hairdo is fashioned like that of the head of Faustina the Elder on coins of 140-50 CE, with braids wound around her head. Side 1 view. Side 2 view.
NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: hair, dress, empire.

Lebes GamikosTwo-handled terracotta round-bottomed vase on stand
Bride seated among attendants carrying wedding objects, esp.left, loutrophoros for wedding bath. Detail vase scene; detail stand.Greek, Attic R-F c. 430-20 BCE. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: wedding, women, house.

Caesar Augustus
Cast Bronze copy of the Augustus Prima Porta (c. 20 BCE) by B. Boschetti. Italian, after 1863. Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: Principate, Military.

Polychrome Mosaic Pavement
Segment showing Herakles knot design, in tesserae and concrete, from a house. Roman, probably Syria, c. 284-395 CE. Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: domestic.

Amber Necklace
Roman, Germania, found in Egypt, 27 BCE-284 CE. Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: costume, women, jewelry.

NeoClassical Oil Painting
by Nicolas-Guy Brenet, "Piety and Generosity of Roman Women," illustrating Plutarch's "Life of Camillus" (having defeated the Etruscans at Veii, Camillus vowed a golden bowl to Apollo at Delphi; when there was insufficient gold to fulfill his vow, the Roman women contributed from their possessions). French,1785. Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: costume, women, jewelry.

Seated Mother on a fragmentary relief
nursing her infant before a temple; a male (her husband?) stands beside her and a veiled woman (priestess?) before her. Roman, imperial period.Rome, Vatican Museum (Chiaramonti). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: child, sculpture, family, monument

Sarcophagus relief
a group of men and women stand holding scrolls (students? disciples?) around a seated male with a scroll open on his lap (center panel detail). Roman, imperial/Christian period. Rome, Vatican Museum (Christian). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: tomb, sculpture, women, education

Sarcophagus relief
in the center panel bust of girl holding a scroll, with a seashell background, below boy & girl with 2 lambs; on left Peter blesses the waters, on right Christ raises Lazarus. 325-350 CE. Rome, Vatican Museum (Christian). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: tomb, sculpture, children, religion, education

Sarcophagus relief
in the center stands a veiled woman pointing to an open book (?bible); to her left are scenes from the biblical Old Testament, to the right of the New Testament. 4th century CE. Rome, Vatican Museum (Christian). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: tomb, sculpture, women, religion, death

Sarcophagus relief
Within a seashell tondo, a veiled woman holds the arm of a man, her husband presumably, who holds a scroll, perhaps their wedding contract. Around the couple are scenes from the biblical Old Testament and New Testament. From the cemetary of St. Calixtus, 325-350 CE. Rome, Vatican Museum (Christian). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: tomb, sculpture, marriage, religion, death

Sarcophagus relief
in the center panel a couple stands before Juno Pronuba in the wedding pose of dextrarum iunctio (now damaged). At their feet stood Psyche and Eros (now lost). Striations separate the central reliefs from two scenes from the biblical Old Testament on the left and two scenes from the New Testament on the right. Imperial/christian period. Rome, Vatican Museum (Christian). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: tomb, sculpture, marriage, religion, death

Plutei Trajani/Anaglypha Trajani
One of the two sculptured parapets Hadrian set up in the Roman Forum to honor Trajan for his social programs. A speaker on the rostra (left) addresses the citizens; (right) the emperor, seated on a platform before the arches of the Basilica Julia, greets a mother holding a child. A statue of Marsyas beside the sacred fig-tree (ficus ruminalis) is on opposite corners of each parapet. The other parapet shows the emperor presiding over the burning of debt records in forgiveness of debt. The back sides of the balustrades are decorated with the garlanded suovetaurilia (sacred sacrifice of a perfect sow, sheep, and bull). Their findspot and original placement was between the Column of Phocas and the Comitium; they are now inside the Curia. Rome, Hadrianic period (after 118 CE). Credits: Ann Raia, 2005.
Keywords: Empire, law, government, politics.

Tiny chest carved out of amber,
part of a child's burial goods, perhaps for jewelry. Found in a marble sarcophagus in Tivoli together with an anatomically detailed ivory doll wearing gold jewelry and a hairdo like the empress Julia Domna's. End 2 century CE. Rome, Massimo. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: toy, sculpture, family, girl, domestic

Epitaph for Agrippina Maior on a large marble block,
probably from Augustus' mausoleum, where her son Caligula had her ashes delivered (from Pandateria where she was exiled and starved herself to death in 33 CE) when he became emperor in 37 CE. Inscription: OSSA/AGRIPPINAE M[ARCI] AGRIPPAE/DIVI AVG[usti] NEPTIS VXORIS/GERMANICI CAESARIS/MATRIS C[AI] CAESARIS AVG[USTI]/ GERMANICI PRINCIPIS (CIL 6.886). A cavity (not visible) on top once held the urn with her ashes. Rome: Passaggio del Muro Romano (Museo Nuovo) of the Museo del Palazzo dei Conservatori. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: sculpture, death, Julio-Claudian, empire, family.

Sarcophagus of Proconnesian marble
A couple reclines on the lid (their faces not carved), she holds an instrument, he a scroll. On the front is depicted the Calydonian Boar hunt; among the heroic hunters in the center are Meleager & Atalanta: she injured the boar with an arrow and Meleager killed it with his spear. From Vicovaro (no date), Rome: Museo Nuovo. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: death, myth, sculpture.

Basilica Julia
Built by Julius Caesar in 54 BCE. In the background is the Palatine Hill and Residence of the Vestals. View from the Passaggio del Muro Romano (Museo Nuovo) of the Museo del Palazzo dei Conservatori. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: Forum, law court, architecture, city, Republic.

Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus
Built in 203 CE to celebrate the victory of the emperor and his sons Geta & Caracalla against the Parthians, it spans the Sacred Way with three arches. View from the Passaggio del Muro Romano (Museo Nuovo) of the Museo del Palazzo dei Conservatori. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: Forum, triumph, architecture, city, Empire.

Altar of marble
with a relief of the goddess Fortuna carved on a throne, holding a rudder in one hand and a cornucopia in the other. (no date). Rome: Palazzo dei Conservatori (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: religion, goddess, prosperity.

Victoria
bronze statuette, personification of victory offering a wreath; popular with the Greeks as Nike. Roman 1st century CE. London, British Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: goddess, military.

Biga
bronze statuette of a racing chariot originally drawn by 2 horses. Found in Tiber. Roman 1-3 century CE. London, British Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: entertainment, transportation, military.

Wedding Ceremony
marble relief of a wedding scene: veiled bride followed by pronuba clasps hands with groom before altar; on the left a huge male carries the sacrificial bull on his shoulder, on the right a maenad dances. Rome: Vatican, Bracchio Nuovo. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: women, bride, religion.

Wounded Amazon, marble, full-length statue
Roman copy of Polycleitus' original from the Sanctuary of Artemis in Ephesus (440/430 BCE). Berlin, Pergamon Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2005.
Keywords: women, sculpture, myth

Tanit, terracotta 3/4 sculpture.
The Punic goddess of the moon, patron of Carthage, wears a crown, a necklace of glass paste beads graduated in size, and earrings of gold; her arms are articulated; she is dressed in the Greek style. 5th-4th century BCE. From necropolis Puig des Molins (Ibiza, Spain, settled by the Phoenecians in 650 BCE). Barcelona, Archaeological Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: religion, funerary

Portrait head, bronze.
Woman with a domed hairstyle, inset eyes, a distinctive face.1 century CE. From Empuries (Catalonia), a port city settled by the Greeks of Phocaea (6th century BCE); occupied by the Romans in 218 BCE as Municipium Emporiae. Barcelona, Archaeological Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2006.
Keywords: women, sculpture

Female Portrait Bust, limestone tomb cover
Painted sculpture of deceased wearing elaborate headdress and many jewels. From Palmyra, 190-210 CE. Copenhagen, Glyptoteck Carlsbad. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: women, sculpture, funerary

Woman Seated, white-painted terracotta figurine
Produced from a mold, this elegantly dressed Greek woman reflects daily life. From Tanagra (Boeotia). Greek. Late 4th century BCE. Copenhagen, Glyptoteck Carlsbad. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: women, sculpture, domestic

Sarcophagos of marble
with a central relief of a teacher with a female student. 3rd century CE. Found in Via Praenestina. Rome: Tabularium. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: death, education, women, sculpture.

Head of marble
Highly veristic portrait of Julia Acquilia Severa, a Vestal pressed into marriage by Emperor Elagabalus. The torso is probably not original. c. 220-222 CE. New York: Fordham University Collection. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women, empress.

Matidia, marble portrait head
Mother (right side, left side) of Sabina, Hadrian's wife. From Via Giolitti. c. 119 CE. Rome, Capitoline Museums. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: women, sculpture, empire

Head of Luna marble
Marciana, sister of Trajan. From the Baths at Porta Marina. 2nd century CE. Ostia: Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women.

Bust of marble
Sabina, crowned wife of Hadrian(deified?), with hair arranged like Artemis/Diana: left side; right side. From the Horti Vettiani(?),130-40 CE Rome: Capotiline Museums. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women, empress.

Lucilla, statue of marble
Full-length and veiled, the daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Minor, wife of co-emperor Lucius Verus. 161-9 CE. Rome, Capitoline Museums. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women, empress.

Crispina, marble head
Wife of Commodus (side). 180-7 CE. Rome, Capitoline Museums. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women, empress.

Life-size Statue of marble
Young girl in the dress of Artemis. Ostia, 60-79 CE. Rome, Massimo Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women.

Octavia sister of Augustus
Marble portrait (side). Augustan Age (31 BCE-14 CE). Rome, Massimo Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women.

Antonia Minor Marble portrait
(left side, right side). Augustan Age (31 BCE-14 CE). Rome, Massimo Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: empire, sculpture, women.

Aphrodite Pudica life-size marble statue
Signed by Menophantos. Roman, 1 century BCE. Rome, Massimo Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: religion, sculpture, goddess.

Sappho marble herm
Inscribed (in Greek): SATTPHO/ ERESIA. Roman copy of a Greek original of the early 5th century BCE. Rome, Capitoline museums. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007.
Keywords: sculpture, poet.

Antony and Octavia on a bronze coin
Issued by Antony. Rome, after 40 BCE. Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: relief sculpture, marriage, republic.

Faustina minor on an aureus
Inscribed: FAVSTINAE AVG[ustae] PII AVG[usti] FIL[iae]. Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait sculpture, money, empire, women.

Fulvia on a silver coin
Portrayed as winged Victory. Issued by Antony. Rome, before 40 BCE. Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait sculpture, marriage, money, republic, women.

Cleopatra on a silver coin
Before 30 BCE. Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait sculpture, Egypt, women, queen.

Faustina minor and Marcus Aurelius in relief on an aureus
commemorating their wedding; inscribed VOTA PVBLICA. They stand "iunctio dextrarum" with a pronuba (Juno?) between them. Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: marriage, money, empire, women.

Faustina Maior and Antoninus Pius in relief on a silver coin
commemorating their wedding ("iunctio dextrarum"). Inscribed: CONCORDIA. Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: marriage, money, empire, women.

Faustina Maior on an aureus
Inscribed DIVA FAVSTINA (deified after her death). Copenhagen, National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait sculpture, money, empire, women, funeral.

Faustina Maior on an aureus
Inscribed DIVA FAVSTINA (deified after her death). Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait sculpture, money, empire, women, funeral.

Woman's Head marble
Portrait of an unknown elderly woman with a hairdo from the late Republican period (side view; smaller: front, side). Augustan. Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: sculpture, portrait, women.

Bust marble
Empress Bruttia Crispina, wife of Commodus (side, c. 180 CE). Full-length draped amd veiled statue of the empress(?) as the goddess Ceres, holding an ear of corn and poppies in her left hand symbolizing fertility (side; 180-190 CE). Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait, sculpture, empire, women.

Marcia Furnilla, 2nd wife of Emperor Titus.
Full-length statue in marble, a replica of the Capitoline Venus, with portrait head (Trajanic era). Bust in marble; side (late Flavian era). Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait, sculpture, empire, women.

Domitia Longina, wife of Domitian.
Portrait head in marble. Elaborate hair arrangement with diadem. c. 96-110 CE. Copenhagen, NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait, sculpture, empire, women.

Tombstone
portraits of a couple in their later years (top) and earlier at their marriage (below) in the dextrarum iunctio pose; dedicated by their child(ren). Inscriptions between their portraits: (left) TVRPILLAE M[arci] F[iliae] / TERTIAE / MATRI (right) C[aio] ACVTIO / C[aii] F[ilio] / PATRI. From Aquileia. Mid 1st century CE. Copenhagen, NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: portrait, marriage, funerary.

Pomegranate ("seeded apple").
The fruit carries opposing symbolic associations: the fruit of life/paradise (associated with fertility) and connected to funeral rituals (mythic links to Persephone and Hera). It was eaten, the source of red dye and used medicinally (known today as a "superfruit" for its beneficial properties). Originated in Persia and brought in ancient times to the Mediterranean area. Copenhagen, NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: food, medicine, myth, women.

Pyrrhus, King of Epirus (318-272 BCE).
Portrait head with Alexander hair and pose in marble. Hired to battle the Romans in Southern Italy; won every battle but couldn't sustain the losses, so left the field (Pyrrhic victory). Roman copy of a 3rd century original Greek sculpture. Copenhagen, NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: war, general, republic.

Scipio Africanus, Roman general and statesman (236-183 BCE).
Portrait head in marble. Defeated Hannibal and Carthage in the 2nd Punic War (side). Original from tomb of Scipio. Rome, end of 2nd century BCE. Copenhagen, NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Credits: Ann Raia, 2008.
Keywords: war, general, republic.

Tarpeia: Punishment
Fragments of the Pentelic marble interior frieze from the renovated Basilica Aemilia portico (drawing; large; central detail) showing the virgin Tarpeia crushed by the Sabine shields as Titus Tatius/Mars watches on the left. Roman Forum, 1 century BCE-CE (probably 87-78 BCE). Rome, Palazzo Massimo National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2007, 2009.
Keywords: architecture, sculpture, women, war.

Scene of Women: fragments of the Pentelic marble interior frieze devoted to Roman legends, from the Basilica Aemilia portico. It is perhaps a depiction of a wedding scene of Sabine Hersilia surrounded by women, about to marry Romulus. Livy tells of her leadership in AUC 1.11, just prior to the story of Tarpeia. Rome, Palazzo Massimo National Museum. Credits: Ann Raia, 2009 Keywords: architecture, sculpture, women, legend, Livy

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May 2007