At the foot of the Capitoline Hill, between the Curia and the Temple of Concord stood the Carcer, the only state prison of ancient Rome. It is sometimes called the Mamertine Prison. The carcer was the upper section in which prisoners could be held awaiting sentence. The underground area of the prison was called the Tullianum where executions occurred when they were not a public display. In early days, this lower level was probably a spring house, hence the name Tullianum from the Latin tullus (spring). The dungeon-like chamber had a vaulted roof of stone. Jugurtha, Vercingetorix, the Catilinarian conspirators, and other enemies of Rome were executed in the Tullianum. According to tradition, St. Peter and Paul were confined here during the reign of Nero and reputedly St. Peter called up the waters of the spring to baptize his jailers.
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