Umbricius refers to an embroidered head covering -- a headband, a
kerchief, or a turban -- that the Romans associated with eastern clothing
(Pliny the Elder writes Arabes mitrati degunt in
In Greece and Rome the mitra was considered women's wear. Cicero derides Clodius for wearing it together with more intimate female garments (In Clodium 44); the African chieftain Iarbas scorns Aeneas, who appears in the Maeonia mitra, as semiviro (Virgil, Aeneid 4.215-16); Vertumnus tricks Pomona into believing he is an old woman by placing a picta mitra over a gray wig (Ovid, Metamorphoses 14.654-5).