Thrasymachus CHAPTERS XXIX and XXX

 Ai9 deuterai/ pwj fronti/dej sofw/tepai *

Second thoughts are somehow the wiser. 


Thrasymachus works on his conditional sentences.


Conditional sentences are those that contain a clause introduced by a word that means "if," "if not," or "unless." In Greek, there are several different patterns for these sentences, depending on the precise intention of the speaker or writer. These patterns can usually be matched to the patterns of English conditional sentences that convey this intention. One way to understand the patterns of conditionals is explained on page 271, Complete and Incomplete conditions. Read these examples carefully and notice the patterns of moods in the conditional and main clauses.

Another way to understand the meaning of conditional sentences is to learn a name for each pattern which gives a hint for translating. The "if-clause" is called the protasis, and the conclusion or main clause is called the apodosis. For the protasis the negative is mh/ while for the apodosis the negative is usually ou).




 ei) + Indicative


  ei) Odusseu\j keleu/ei, oi( e9tai~roi pei/qontai.

  If Odysseus orders, the companions obey.




 e)a/n + Subjunctive
Future Indicative or Imperative

e)a\n Odusseu\j keleu/h| oi( e9tai~roi pei/sontai.

  If Odysseus orders, the companions will obey.




 ei) + Optative

 Optative + a!n

ei) Odusseu\j keleu/oi oi( e9tai~roi pei/qointo a@n.

  If Odysseus should order (were to order), the companions would obey.




 e)a/n + Subjunctive

Present Indicative

e)a\n Odusseu\j keleu/h| oi( e9tai~roi pei/qontai.

  If Odysseus (ever) orders, the companions obey.




 ei) + Optative

Imperfect Indicative

ei) Odusseu\j keleu/oi oi( e9tai~roi e)pei/qonto.

  If Odysseus (ever) ordered, the companions obeyed.




 ei) + Imperfect Indicative

Imperfect Indicative + a)n

ei) Odusseu\j e)ke/leue oi( e9tai~roi e)pei/qonto a)n.

  If Odysseus were ordering, the companions would obey (would be obeying).




 ei) + Aorist Indicative

Aorist Indicative + a)n

ei) Odusseu\j e)ke/leuse oi( e9tai~roi e)pei/santo a)n.

  If Odysseus had ordered, the companions would have obeyed.

Odysseus,  Margit Kovacs Collection, Szentendre, Hungary

 Odysseus, Margit Kovacs Collection, Szentendre, Hungary

 "ei) ga\r mh\ kate/sxon me i(e/menon pro\j ta\j Seirh~naj ...."


THE VERB oi}da

oi}da is a very common verb. It is a "defective" verb in the sense that it only has a very limited number of forms. Most of these appear on page 91, and all are given on page 242. A quick look at these forms, however, will tell you that this troublesome little verb has three stems to learn to recognize in addition to oi}d-, and that it will be easy to confuse many of its forms with those of other verbs (aorist of o(ra/w, for instance, or forms of a)|dw). Study its forms on page 91 very carefully so that you are able to recognize this verb correctly when you meet it in your reading, and let context help you see it for what it is.



XXIX-XXX, A. Find the conditional sentences in these two chapters and identify each as to its type. Translate each of these sentences.

Answer Key

XXIX-XXX, B. Identify the mood and tense of each form of oi}da:

 1. oi}sqa
 2. i@sqi
 3. ei)dw/j
 4. ei@setai
 5. ei)do/tej
 6. h!|dei
 7. ei)de/nai
 8. i)/sasi
9. ei)dei~en
 10. ei)dw~men

Answer Key

Forward to Chapters XXXI and XXXII

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