Thrasymachus CHAPTER XXV


 Te/knon, h@ tau/tan h@ e)pi\ tau/tav *

 Child, either this, or upon this.


The fourth and fifth principal parts of a verb are the PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE (first person singular) and the PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE /PASSIVE (first person singular) forms. These principal parts give the stems for all of the perfect active and perfect middle/passive forms in all of the moods, and for the pluperfect forms.

While the perfect stem indicates an action completed in the past, it differs from the aorist and imperfect indicative in that the result of a perfect action is felt as a present state. When Odysseus, at line 10, says that Polyphemus has closed the door, he uses the perfect form ke/kleike to indicate that the door remains closed. Polyphemus has completed the action of closing the door, but the result of that is action is still felt (and the still-closed door is an important obstacle to the men's escape from the cave.)

Also unlike the aorist and imperfect indicative, the perfect indicative is, along with the present annd future, a PRIMARY tense.



REDUPLICATION: Verbs that start with a consonant usually add that consonant plus e to the beginning of a verb to form the perfect stem: lu/w becomes le/luka, siga/w becomes sesi/ghka, etc. q, f, and x are reduplicated with their unaspirated sounds: teqau/maka, pe/feuga, ke/xuka. Verbs that start with a vowel often lengthen that vowel for the perfect stem: e)qe/lw becomes h)qe/lhka, a)/gw becomes h}xa. If you look through the fifth principal parts of the verbs that start on page 244, you will see that reduplication can be impossible to predict. You will have to learn the patterns of several different types in order to be able to identify perfect forms correctly.

ENDINGS: The following endings are added directly to the perfect stem to form the Perfect Indicative tense:




























Many verbs do not have k before the perfect active endings and are therefore said to have a "second perfect." Their active forms present no difficulty once you know the basic perfect endings. For example, here is the conjugation of the perfect active indicative of bla/ptw, which happens to have a second perfect:




Because the perfect middle/passive endings are added directly to the perfect middle/passive stem, two consonants often come together that cause certain spelling changes. This is one of the hard parts about learning to recognize perfect forms. Although these changes occur according to very specific and regular rules, they can be puzzling until you get used to them. By observing very carefully a few different perfect middle/passive indicative conjugations, you can become familiar with the patterns of these changes and learn to expect them. Five verbs are conjugated for you in the perfect middle/passive indicative at the top of page 82. You will also note that the third person plural form is made up of the perfect middle/passive participle and the third person plural form of ei)mi/.


XXV, A. Translate each of the following perfect indicative verbs. Use the fifth and sixth principal parts of the verbs that start on page 244 to help you identify the verb correctly. Example: le/luka, I have released

1. pepw/kamen
2. e)dhdo/kamen
 3. ke/kleike
 4. ke/kauke
 5. e(o/rake
 6. e)lhlu/qotej ei)si
 7. ei)lhmme/noi ei)si
8. pepo/nqamen
 9. die/fqartai
 10. sesw|/smeqa

Answer Key



Except for the perfect active participle, other moods of the perfect use endings which you already know. Study the forms on pages 81 and 82 carefully.

The perfect active participle uses a new set of endings: -w/j, -ui~a, -o/j. These use familiar third and first declension endings, and are declined fully at the top of page 195. You will see that the genitive singular for the masculine and neuter is -otoj.

Note that the Subjunctive and Optative middle/passive use the perfect middle/passive participle and the appropriate form of ei)mi and that the Subjunctive and Optative active may be formed this way using the active participle.



XXV, B. Give the first principal part of each of the perfect verb forms. Identify mood and voice, then translate. For simplicity, use "might" for Subjunctive and "would" for Optative. Example: h!ggeltai, a)gge/llw, Indicative, M-P, It has been announced.

 1. pefobhme/noi  11. leleimme/nh ei@hn
 2. kekinhkw/j  12. pefhne/nai
 3. kekleisme/nhj 13. pefobhme/noi
 4. kekaume/nou  14. leloi/phte
 5. e)lhluqo/tej  15. pepei/sqai
 6. ei)lhmme/nwn  16. beblhko/ta
7. tetimh/kotej w}si  17. bebou/lhsai
 8. teqnhkui~a  18. e)sxh/kasi
 9. de/deicai  19. memaqh/kw
 10. pepei/smeqa  20. bebhkw/j

Answer Key

Forward to Chapter XXVI, XXVII and XXVIII

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