)Arxh\ de/ toi h9/misu panto/j. *

 The beginning indeed is half of the whole.



There is a good explanation of clauses that start with pri/n at Thrasymachus, pages 268-269, 65 (e). You have read several pri/n clauses in Chapter XXVI, and seen that the mood of the verb in the clause may be infinitive, indicative, subjunctive, or optative. If the main clause contains ou) or mh/, the mood of the verb in the pri/n clause will depend on whether or not the action of this verb actually took place (indicative) and the sequence of tenses (subjunctive or optative) if the action of this verb takes place at an indefinite time.


XXVI, A. Reread Chapter XXVI carefully and for each of the pri/n clauses, identify the mood and tense of the verb. Translate the clause according to the context.

XXVI, B. Verb review. Identify the mood, tense, voice and first principal part of each of the following verbs from Chapter XXVI.

 1. e)tolmw~men
 2. e)kku/yaj
 3. e)pei/sqhn
 4. a)pe/lqontoj
 5. o)cu/nwmen
 6. a)pe/kruyan
 7. h(sqei/j
 8. e)qelh/seij
 9. w)no/masai
 10. kate/pesen

Answer Key



A large group of Greek verbs use special sets of endings for the present and second aorist forms. These are very common verbs, and the LAST sets of endings that you will need to memorize as you complete the reading of Thrasymachus (eu}ge!). In Chapters XXVII and XXVIII, you have read many of these common verbs and noticed that they are often combined with prepositional prefixes, such as ti/qhmi, e)piti/qhmi. In order to learn to recognize the forms of these verbs, which may at first look like a very large task, we suggest the following first steps:

Review the Present forms of fhmi/ on page 61 and notice both the endings and the pattern of long vowels (singular) and short vowels (plural). Learn these active endings:









Memorize the principle parts and the meanings of the following very common verbs:

 i(sthmi  sth/sw  e)/sthsa, e)/sthn  e(/sthka  e(/stamai e)sta/qhn  stand up
ti/qhmi  qh/sw  e!qhka  te/qhka    e)te/qhn  put, place
 di/dwmi  dw//sw  e)/dwka de/dwka  de/domai  e0do/qhn  give
 dei/knumi  dei/cw  e!deica  de/deixa  de/deigmai  e0dei/xqhn  show

Look for the patterns in these principal parts, and compare them to the principal parts of lu/w.

As you would expect, the Imperfect tense for these verbs is made from the first principal part, and it is augmented. Look carefully at these forms and identify the patterns that will help you recognize them:








 i#sthn i(sta/mhn  e)ti/qhn  e)tiqe/mhn  e)di/doun  e)dido/mhn  e)dei/knun  e)deiknu/mhn
 i#sthj  i#staso e)ti/qhj  e)ti/qeso  e)di/douj  e)di/doso  e)dei/knuj  e)dei/knuso
 i#sth  i#stato  e)ti/qh e)ti/qeto  e)di/dou  e)di/doto  e)dei/knu  e)dei/knuto
 i#stamen  i(sta/meqa  e)ti/qemen  e)tiqe/meqa  e)di/domen  e)dido/meqa  e)dei/knumen  e)deiknu/meqa
 i#state  i#stasqe  e)ti/qete  e)ti/qesqe  e)di/dote  e)di/dosqe  e)dei/knute  e)dei/knusqe
 i#stasan  i#stanto  e)ti/qesan  e)ti/qento  e)di/dosan  e)di/donto  e)dei/knusan  e)dei/knunto

Study carefully the paradigms on page 87. With a very few exceptions, you will see forms that look very familiar for the different moods of the mi-verbs. The full conjugations start on page 224, in case you need to look for a form that you cannot easily identify.

Finally, learn the principal parts and meaning of the the annoying little mi-verb i#hmi, page 239. This verb most often appears in compounds, such as a)fi/hmi (a)po/ plus i#hmi), and while it follows the patterns of the other mi-verbs, it can be hard to recognize because its stems are so short.

For another look at the -mi verbs, try Professor Helma Dik's HANDOUTS.




For the following verbs from Chapters XXVII and XXVIII, give the Mood, Tense, Voice and First Principal Part. You will not be fooled by Number 22 if you look at it in its context (page 89, line 40).

 1. ti/qhsi  12. a)fh~ke
 2. i#stasqe  13. dw/sein
 3. a)fi/esqai  14. sta/j
 4. e)pe/qento  15. a)fhso/meqa
 5. qe/ntej  16. sunqei/hn
 6. e)/dwke  17. u(pe/qhka
 7. sta/ntej  18. e)piqei/h
 8. e)ne/qesan  19. prodoi~en
 9. e@sth  20. a)fi/h|
 10. a)fi/hj  21. a)fei/j
 11. tiqe/nai  22. e)pi/qonto

Answer Key

XXVII-XXVIII, B. Verb Review.

Identify the Mood of these verbs:

 1. laqoi/men
 2. i@qi
 3. dei/caj
 4. ei)sqw~si
 5. a)fie/nai

Identify the Voice of these verbs:

 1. a)pe/bhsan
 2. a)peipw/n
 4. kaqisa/menoj
 5. e)cenexqei/j


Identify the Person of these verbs:

 1. o(rw~si
 2. u(pesxo/mhn
 3. e)ka/lese
 4. e)/qesan
 5. a)fiknou~meqa

Answer Key

Forward to Chapters XXIX and XXX

Back to Contents