Thrasymachus Chapter VI

 o9 bi/oj braxu/j, h( de\ te/xnh makra/.*

 Life is short, art is long.


Translate the following pairs of sentences into English:

h( gunh/ e)sti a)gaqh/. h( gunh\ ble/pei to\n pai~da.

o(rw~ th\n gunai~ka . h( gunh\ pe/mpei ta\ dw~ra.

[Does each pair read "smoothly?" How might you change each pair so that it becomes one "smooth" English sentence?]

As you have seen, there are several ways of qualifying a noun: with an adjective, for instance, or with another noun in apposition:

 h( gunh\ pe/mpei to\ dw~ron. The woman sends the gift. 
 h( a)gaqh\ gunh\ pe/mpei to\ dw~ron.  The good woman sends the gift.
 h( gunh\, mh/thr mou~, pe/mpei to\ dw~ron.  The woman, my mother, sends the gift


There is another way of qualifying a noun, by the use of a relative clause which in its entirety modifies the noun.

For example:

h( gunh\ h# e)sti a)gaqh\ pe/mpei ta\ dw~ra.   The woman who is good sends the gifts.

[Remember that a clause has a subject and a verb, whereas a phrase does not. Is a relative clause a dependent or independent clause?]


VI, A.In the following sentences, underline the main subject and verb. Put parentheses around the relative clause. Identify the case, number, and gender of the relative pronoun. Translate.

1.  o( a)nh\r o#j e)sti a)gaqo\j paideu/ei tou~j pai~daj.
2. oi( a)/ndrej oi# ei)sin a)gaqoi\ paideu/ousi tou~j pai~daj.
3. oi( a)/ndrej paideu/ousi tou\j pai~daj oi# ei)sin a)gaqoi/.
4. oi( a)/ndrej paideu/ousi tou\j pai~daj ou#j ai( gunai~kej ble/pousin.
5. o( a)nh\r paideu/ei to\n pai~da o#j e)sti a)gaqo/j.
6. oi( a!ndrej paideu/ousi to\n pai~da o#n h( qeo/j blepei.
7. o( a)nh\r ou[ to\ paidi/on paideu/w, e)(sti\ a)gaqo/j.
8. oi( a)/ndrej w{n paidi/a paideu/w ei0si\n a)gaqoi/.
9. h( gunh\ h{| pe/mpw to\ dw~ro/n e)sti a)gaqh/.
10.  ai( gunai~kej ai[j pe/mpw ta\ dw~ra/ ei)sin a)gaqai/.

Answer Key

You can easily see that the relative clause is a dependent clause. It does not stand stand alone as a complete sentence. (“to whom I give the gift” or “whom I see,” for examples, are not independent clauses.) Instead, the relative clause qualifies a noun. “The girl to whom I give the gift” is a particular girl, just like “the tall girl, the short girl” etc).

English also has relative pronouns in different cases:

 GENITIVE  of whom, whose
 DATIVE  to whom

HOW do you form the relative pronoun in Greek?

HOW do you know which form to use?

Test yourself on the forms, given the examples you see in the exercise above, before looking at the forms listed. What is the general rule for their formation? What declensions do you see? What is the breathing mark for every form? What is the difference in the meaning of oi9 and oi#, which differ from one another only in their accent? See Thrasymachus page 202 for the forms of the relative pronoun.

If you look carefully again at the sentences in the exercise above, you will be able to see these rules at work:

A relative pronoun takes its GENDER and NUMBER from its ANTECEDENT (the word it refers to).

 A relative pronoun takes its CASE from its function within its own clause.


Here are a few more examples:

 oi( qeoi\ oi# ei)sin e)n ou)ranw~| ble/pousin h(ma~j.

 o( qeo/j o#j e)stin e)n ou)ranw~| ble/pei h(ma~j.

 oi( qeoi/ paideu/ousi tou~j filoso/fouj ou$j ble/pw.

Review these important points about the relative clause and the relative pronoun:

The relative clause is a dependent clause which qualifies a noun.

The relative pronoun takes its gender and number from its antecedent but its case from its function within the relative clause.

The relative pronoun is second-first declension.

Each form of the relative pronoun starts with a vowel and has a rough breathing mark.




VI, B. For each of the following, underline the main clause, put parentheses around the relative clause, and identify the relative pronoun as to its case, number and gender. Identify the antecedent and explain why the relative pronoun is in its particular form.

1. oi( a)/ndrej ou$j o(rw~ pisteu/ousin e)kei/nw| tw~| basilei~.

2. bou/lomai o(ra~n (to see) tou\j qeou\j oi# ei)sin e)n ou)ranw~|.

3. oi( tw~n gunai/kwn pai~dej oi{j pe/mpw to\ dw~ro/n ei)sin a)gaqoi/.

4. oi( pai~dej oi( th~j gunaiko\j h$n o(rw~ ei)sin a)gaqai/.

5. ti/j e)stin ou#toj o( a)nh\r o$j bai/nei e)n po/lei;

6. h( pai~j h{j mate/ra o(rw~ pei/qei to\n basile/a o$j a)na/ssei e)n th~| po/lei.

7. h( me\n gunh\ paideu/ei ta\ paidi/a a$ e)gw\ o(rw~, o( de\ a)nh\r to\n basile/a.

8. ti/na manqa/nousin oi( pai~dej ou#j oi( filo/sofoi dida/skousin;

9. oi( filo/sofoi, oi$ sofw/teroi tw~n basile/wn ei)si\, pisteu/ousi tai~j gunai~ci.

10. oi( au)toi\ filo/sofoi/ ei)sin sofw/tatoi/ e)n po/lei. au)toi\ oi( filo/sofoi, oi{j pisteu/omai/, ei)sin a)gaqoi/.


VI, C. Identify each form, change it to the opposite number and translate:

1. w[n 5. h#n 9. w{|
2. oi{j 6. ou#j 10. o#j
3. o#n 7.  h|{ 11. h{j
4. a# 8. ou{ 12. ai{j

Answer Key



Red figure Athena by the Berlin Painter, Ciba Collection

 h( Klutaimne/stra

 o( Agame/mnwn

 h( Kassa/ndra


Forward to Chapter VII

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