Thrasymachus Chapter VII

  (/Ellhnej a)ei\ pai=de/j e)ste, ge/rwn de\ 9/Ellhn ou)k e)/stin.*

You Greeks are always children, there is no Greek old man.


You have seen that there are several ways to modify a noun: with an adjective, another noun in apposition, a prepositional phrase, and a relative clause. Be sure you understand the examples below:

 h( gunh/  the woman article + noun 
 h( au)th\ gunh/  the same woman noun modified by adjective 
 h( gunh/, h( mh/thr  the woman, the mother  noun + noun in apposition
 h( gunh\ e0n oi)ki/a|  the woman in the house  noun + prepositional phrase
 h( gunh\ h$n ble/pw  the woman whom I see noun + relative clause

Remember that a noun and the adjective modifying it will agree in case, number, and gender.

In each of the examples above, "the woman" is specified: the same woman, for instance, not the tall or busy woman; the woman, the mother, not the woman, my friend; the woman in the house, not the one in the city; the woman whom I see, not the one who sees me.

There is another way to modify a noun, with a participal or participial phrase.

We use this form of modification in English as well:

 h( gunh\ filoume/nh  the loving woman
 h( gunh\ bainome/nh e)n po/lei  the woman walking in the city



A participle is an adjective, not a main verb that has an ending indicating its person. "The boy running in the street" is not a sentence ("The boy runs [is running] in the street" is a sentence).


Look at the following examples and observe how the present middle participle is formed:

o( a/)nhr pempo/menoj ta\ dw~ra

oi$ a#ndrej pempo/menoi ta\ dw~ra

ai( gunai~kej paideuo/menai ta\ paidi/a

to\ paidi/on filou/menon to\n qeo/n

ta\ paidi/a filou/mena to\n qeo/n


You are now learning the present middle participle. You will learn the active and passive as well.

The translation of the middle participle, just as that of the middle indicative, may be essentially the same in English as the active, but keep in mind the concept of the middle voice.

See Thrasymachus p. 27 for the middle participal forms for contracted verbs.

The present middle participle is formed by taking the present stem (from the first principal part) plus the 1st-2nd declension -omenoj, -h, -on suffix. Thus pempo/menoj, -h, -on

o( a)nh\r pempo/menoj ta\ dw~ra e)sti a)gaqo/j.

oi( a!ndrej maxo/menoi ei)sin i)sxuroi/.

ble/pw ta\j gunai~kaj paideuome/naj ta\ paidi/a.

pe/mpw ta\ dw~ra toi~j paidi/oij manqanome/noij ta\ maqh/mata.

One way to think about a sentence when you are looking at it carefully is to consider the "bare bones": the subject, verb, and direct object or predicate nominative if relevant. The "bare bones" of the first sentence above are o( a)nh/r e)sti a)gaqo/j. The rest is a participial phrase that modifies the subject. Similarly, the "bare bones" of the third sentence are ble/pw ta\j gunai~kaj.

In English, we tend to use a relative clause instead of a participial phrase: "The philosophers teaching the lessons are wise" and "The philosophers who teach the lessons are wise" mean the same thing.


oi( filo/sofoi didasko/menoi ta\ maqh/mata/ ei)si sofoi/.

oi( filo/sofoi oi$ dida/skousi ta\ maqh/mata/ ei)si sofoi/.

[What are the "bare bones" of these sentences?]



VII, A. Identify the following forms, translate each, and change each to the opposite number.

1. pisteuome/nwn

2. fainome/nouj

3. pasxo/menoi

4. leipome/nw|

5. leipome/nh

6. krinome/nou

7. blepome/nh|

8. blepome/naij

9. a)kouo/menai

10. a)kouome/nouj

VII, B. Translate the following sentences. Underline the subject and the verb. Identify the participle.

1. o( basileu\j pisteuo/menoj e)kei/nw| tw~| a)ndri\ pe/mpei ta\ dw~ra.

2. oi( neani/ai ei)si mwroi\ kai\ ou) pisteu/ousi tai~j gunaici\ tai~j pempome/naij ta\ dw~ra.

3. oi( au)toi\ qeoi\ blepo/menoi a)nqrw/pouj a)na/ssousin e)n ou)ranw~|.

VII, C. Translate each sentence. Label it as simple, compound, or complex. Identify each of the underlined words completely.

1. o( a)nh\r pempo/menoj u(mi~n to\ dw~ron o/( e)sti kalo\n nu~n bai/nei ei}j po/lin.

2. ti\ pa/sxei o( neani/aj o#j e)stin e)n po/lei;

3. ou}toi oi$ a!naktej, maxo/menoi/ e)n th|~ po/lei h$n filou~me/n, ei)sin deinoi/.

VII, D. Translate each sentence. Underline the participial phrase. Change that phrase to a relative clause. Retranslate the sentence.

1. h( gunh\ paideuome/nh to\n pai~da tima~| th\n qea/n.

2. au)toi/ oi( a!nqrwpoi baino/menoi/ e)n th~| po/lei ble/pousi tou\j pai~daj.

3. e)gw\ o(rw~ touj a)nqrw/pouj paideuome/nouj ta\ maqh/mata.

VII, E. Translate each sentence. Underline the relative clause. Change that clause to a participial phrase. Retranslate the sentence.

1. h(mei~j e0smen filo/sofoi oi$ didasko/meqa e)n po/lei.

2. oi( filo/sofoi oi$ paideu/ontai tou\\j neani/aj ei)si\n a)gaqoi\ a/)ndrej.

3. u(mei~j ble/pete tou\\j a)gaqou\j filoso/fouj oi$ paideu/ontai tou\j neani/aj.

4. oi( deinoi\ basilei~j a0poktei/nontai tou\\j stratiw/taj oi( ma/xontai e)n po/lei.

5. o( Odusseu\j kai\ o( Thle/maxoj a)poktei/nousi tou\\j au)tou\\j a!ndraj oi$ dei/pnousi/ e)n oi)ki/a|.

Answer Key


VII, F. For each sentence, state whether it is a simple, compound, or complex. Underline the subject(s) and main verb(s). Identify completely all participles. Translate. Follow directions in the parentheses.

1. o( mwro\j basileu\j pisteu/ei toi~j a)ndra/si toi~j pempome/noij dw~ra. (Change a)ndra/si to the singular and make all other necessary changes.)

2. to/de sofw/taton paidi/on manqano/meno/n e)n oi)ki/a| le/gei kalw~j. (Change the adjective to the comparative equivalent and retranslate. Change the sentence to "the same child.")

3. ou{toi oi( filo/sofoi paideuo/menoi ta\ paidi/a ei)si\n e)n oi)ki/a|. (Change the participial phrase to a relative clause.)


VII, G. Write three sentences of your own, each including a participle or participial phrase.


VII, H. Translate the following. Label each as simple, compound, or complex.

1. e)gw\ o(rw~ u(ma~j oi$ ma/xesqe e)n po/lei. (What is the funciton of e)gw/?)

2. h(mei~j boulo/meqa se\ paideu/ein au)tai/. (Identify each pronoun completely and explain its use).

3. e)gw\ au)th\ pe/mpw to\ dw~ron soi\ kai\ au)tai~j.

4. u(mei~j ble/pete h(ma~j e)n th~| au)th~| oi)ki/a|.

5. ou(toi oi( a!ndrej oi# ei)sin a)gaqoi\ pe/mpousi ta\ bibli/a soi\ kai\ moi/.

Answer Key




Translate each sentence. Label it as simple, compound, complex. Identify each of the underlined words completely.

1. o( a)nh\r pempo/menoj u(mi~n ta\ dw~ra a$ ble/pw e)sti nu~n e)n po/lei.

2. ti/ e)/pasxe o( neani/aj o$j h}n e)n po/lei;

3. oi( basilei~s oi$ ma/xontai nu~n bou/lontai o(ra~n ei)rh/nhn [peace] e)n th~| po/lei h$n filou~men.

Translate each sentence. Identify the participial phrase. Change that phrase to a relative clause. Retranslate the sentence.

1. h( gunh\ ou}sa kalh\ paideu~ei to\n pai~da.

2. oi( a)nqrw/poi bai/nontej e)n po/lei ble/pousi tou\j pai~daj kai\ mhte/raj au)tw~n.

3. e)gw\ o(rw~ tou\j a)nqrw/pouj paideu/ontaj ta\ maqh/mata.

Translate each sentence. Identify the relative clause. Change that clause to a participial phrase. Retranslate the sentence.

1. h(mei~j e)smen filo/sofoi oi$ manqa/nomen e)n po/lei.

2. oi( filo/sofoi oi$ paideu/ousin tou\j pai~da/j ei)sin a)gaqoi\ a!ndrej.

3. u(mei~j ble/pete tou\j a)gaqou\j filoso/fouj oi$ paideu/ousi tou\j pai~daj.


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