XXII, B. For example:

1. When our companions died
2. Because they answered nothing
3. while we were rowing
4. When it became night
5. when it became calm
6. and the clouds had been scattered by the sun
7. while I was urging them on
8. when the companions had eaten enough
9. while I was sleeping on the shore


1. tw~n a!llwn a)popleusa/ntwn h(mei~j e)n th|~ h)pei/rw| e)mei/namen.

2. tw~n e(tai/rwn e)retto/ntwn gi/gnetai nuc.

3. o( a!nemoj pnw~n fe/rei ta\j nau~j pro\j th\n nh~son.

4. kaqizo/menoi e)re/ttomen.

5. tw~n ne/wn e)nexqei/swn pro\j th\n gh~n e)ce/bhmen.

6. tou~ a)ne/mou pnou~ntoj ou)k h)re/samen.

7. ble/pomen to\n kubernh/thn kubernw~nta th\n nau~n.

8. tw~n qew~n e)xqrw~n genome/nwn h(mi~n polla/ te kai\ kaka\ e)pa/qomen.

9. toi~j ce/noij a)fikome/noij parei~xon lwto/n.

10. nukto\j genome/nhj ou)de\n ei!domen.


XXIV, A. For Example:

Line 7, e)co\n ou}n tou~to pioei~n, When it was possible to do this

Line 12, do/can moi tou\j e(tai/rouj sugkale/sai, since it seemed best to me to call the comrades together

Line 14, prosh~kon ou@n e)moi\ h(gemo/ni g' o)nti kinduneu/ein, Since it is fitting for me being the leader to run the risks

Line 18, ou#tw de\ kai\ toi~j e(tai/roij do/can, Since thus it seemed best also to the comrades



1. e)co\n h(mi~n a)pofeu/gein, Since it is possible for us to escape, let us go away quickly.

2. prosh~kon h(gemo/sin a)ndrei/oij ei}nai, Since it is fitting for leaders to be brave, be brave.

3. e)co\n e)re/ttein, Since it seemed best to row, we took down the sails.

4. do/can tw~| strathgw~| toi~j polemi/oij eu)qu\j ma/xesqai, Since it seemed best to the general to fight the enemy right away, he ordered the soldiers to take up arms.

5. de/on h(ma~j w(j ta/xista a)poplei~n a)po\ th~j nh/sou, Since we must escape from the island as quickly as possible, let us board the boats.


XXIV, C. For Example:

Line 1, tou/twn d' ou(tw genome/nwn, With these things happening in this way

Line 3, nefe/lhj prosgenome/nhj, because a cloud had come on

Lines 5-6, kai/per selh/nhj a)pou/shj, although the moon was absent

Line 27, a)ll' ou)deno\j kwlu/ontoj, but since noone prevents us



1. pepw/kamen we have drunk
2. e)dhdo/kamen we have eaten
 3. ke/kleike he has closed
 4. ke/kauke he has burned
 5. e(o/rake he has seen
 6. e)lhlu/qotej ei)si they have come
 7. ei)lhmme/noi ei)si they have taken/ been taken
8. pepo/nqamen we have suffered
 9. die/fqartai it has been destroyed
 10. sesw|/smeqa we have been saved


 1. pefobhme/noi, fobou~mai, participle, M-P, having feared  11. leleimme/nh ei@hn, lei/pw, optative, M-P, I would have been left
 2. kekinhkw/j, kine/w, participle, active, having moved  12. pefhne/nai, fai/nw, infinitive, active, to have shown
 3. kekleisme/nhj, klei/w, participle, M-P, having been closed 13. ke/klhkaj, kale/w, indicative, active, you have called
 4. kekaume/nou, kai/w, participle, M-P, having burned  14. leloi/phte, lei/pw, subjunctive, active, you might have left
 5. e)lhluqo/tej, e)/rxomai, participle, active, having come  15. pepei/sqai, pei/qw, infinitive, M-P, to have been persuaded
 6. ei)lhmme/nwn, lamba/nw, participle, M-P,having been taken  16. beblhko/ta, ba/llw, participle, active, having thrown
7. tetimh/kotej w}si, tima/w, subjunctive, active, they might have honored  17. bebou/lhsai, bou/lomai, indicative, M-P, you have wished
 8. teqnhkui~a, a)poqnh/skw, participle, active, having died  18. e)sxh/kasi, e@xw, indicative, active, they have had
 9. de/deicai, dei/knumi, indicative, M-P, you have been shown  19. memaqh/kw, manqa/nw, subjunctive, active, I might learn
 10. pepei/smeqa, pei/qw, indicative, M-P, we have been persuaded  20. bebhkw/j, bai/nw, participle, active, having gone


 Lines 1-2, kaqhu~den is indicative, imperfect. until the Cyclops was (actually) sleeping
 Lines 2-3, kate/fagen is indicative, aorist. before he (actually) ate the bodies of the companions, bones and all
 Lines 8-9, e)carqh~| is subjunctive, aorist. until the stone is removed from the exit
 Line 14, a)rista~n is infinitive, present. before he had breakfast
 Lines 16-17, e)cela/sai is infinitive, aorist. before he drove the sheep out of the cave
 Lines 17-18, a)pie/nai is infinitive, present. before he went out
Line 29,  a)poktei/nein is infinitive, present. before you kill us all
 Lines 35-36, ma/qw is subjunctive, aorist. until I learn your name
 Lines 37-38, kate/pien is indicative, aorist. before the Cyclops receiving the wine three times (actually) drank it down


 1. e)tolmw~men is indicative, imperfect, active of tolma/w
 2. e)kku/yaj is participle, aorist, active of e)kku/ptw
 3. e)pei/sqhn is indicative, aorist, passive of pei/qw
 4. a)pe/lqontoj is participle, aorist, active of a)pe/rxomai
 5. o)cu/nwmen is subjunctive, present, active of o)cu/nw
 6. a)pe/kruyan is indicative, aorist, active of a)pokru/ptw
 7. h(sqei/j is participle, aorist, passive of h(/domai
 8. e)qelh/seij is indicative, future, active of e)qe/lw
 9. w)no/masai is indicative, perfect, M-P of o)noma/zw
 10. kate/pesen is indicative, aorist, active of katapi/ptw



 1. ti/qhsi, indicative, present, active, ti/qhmi  12. a)fh~ke, indicative, aorist, active, a)fi/hmi
 2. i#stasqe, imperative, present, active, i(/sthmi  13. dw/sein, infinitive, future, active, di/dwmi
 3. a)fi/esqai, infinitive, present, middle, a)fi/hmi  14. sta/j, participle, aorist, active, i(/sthmi
 4. e)pe/qento, indicative, aorist, middle, e)piti/qhmi  15. a)fhso/meqa, indicative, future, middle, a)fi/hmi
 5. qe/ntej, participle, aorist, active, ti/qhmi  16. sunqei/hn, optative, aorist, active, sunti/qhmi
 6. e)/dwke, indicative, aorist, active, di/dwmi  17. u(pe/qhka, indicative, aorist, active, u(poti/qhmi
 7. sta/ntej, participle, aorist, active, i(/sthmi  18. e)piqei/h, optative, aorist, active, e)piti/qhmi
 8. e)ne/qesan, indicative, aorist, active, e)nti/qhmi  19. prodoi~en, optative, aorist, active, prodi/dwmi
 9. e@sth, indicative, aorist, active, i(/sthmi  20. a)fi/h|, subjunctive, present, active, a)fi/hmi
 10. a)fi/hj, indicative, present, active, a)fi/hmi  21. a)fei/j, participle, aorist, active, a)fi/hmi
 11. tiqe/nai, infinitive, present, active, ti/qhmi  22. e)pi/qonto, indicative, aorist, middle, pei/qomai


 1. laqoi/men Optative
 2. i@qi Imperative
 3. dei/caj Participle
 4. ei)sqw~si Subjunctive
 5. a)fie/nai Infinitive
 1. a)pe/bhsan Active
 2. a)peipw/n Active
 3.dunw/meqa Middle
 4. kaqisa/menoj Middle
 5. e)cenexqei/j Passive

 1. o(rw~si, third plural
 2. u(pesxo/mhn first singular
 3. e)ka/lese third singular
 4. e)/qesan third plural
 5. a)fiknou~meqa first plural


Chapter XXIX:

Lines 6-7. Future More Vivid. If you do this, you will regret your chattering and we will all die.

Lines 8-9. Simple. If you speak thus (I said) you are women and not men.

Lines 24-25. Future More Vivid. If (you do) not (do this), you will add evils to evils for us being very weak.

Lines 25-26. Simple. For if Polyphemus himself hurled this rock and not some god, he is the strongest of men.

Lines 26-28. Future More Vivid. And if he hears you shouting, he will know where we are and, throwing another rock upon the ship, he will send us to Hades.

Lines 29-30. Future More Vivid. If someone asks who blinded you, say the Odysseus son of Laertes, the one living in Ithaca, blinded you.

Chapter XXX:

Line 5. Past Contrary to Fact. For if she had not advised me what it was necessary to do, we would not have escaped.

Lines 11-12. Future Less Vivid. If you should (were to) steer the ship here, you would hear us sweetly singing.

Line 13. Future Less Vivid. But if someone now should (were to) ask what they were singing about, I would not be able to say.

Lines 19-20. Past Contrary to Fact. For if they had not held me down as I sent myself toward the Sirens, we would all have perished shamefully.

Lines 21-22. Past Contrary to Fact. ...which we would not have escaped if the companions had not rowed courageously.

Lines 28-29. Past Contrary to Fact. I would not have known what was happening if I, hearing them piteously calling me, had not perceived them being eaten by the Scylla.


 1. oi}sqa, indicative, present
2. i!sqi, imperative, present
 3. ei)dw/j, participle, present
 4. ei!setai, indicative, future
 5. ei)do/tej, participle, present
 6. h!|dei, indicative, imperfect or "past"
 7. ei)de/nai, infinitive, present
 8. i)/sasi, indicative, present
9. ei)dei~en, optative, present
 10. ei)dw~men, subjunctive, present


Lines 7-8. prose/sxomen is indicative, aorist.

Lines 8-9. katekli/qhn is indicative, aorist.

Lines 11-12. doi~en is optative, aorist

Line 33. dunai/mhn is optative, present

Line 34. e)/xoimi is optative, present