Books: (see also General Reference Works)
Auguet, Roland. Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games. London: Allen and Unwin, 1972.
Barton, Carlin A. The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Futrell, Alison. Blood in the Arena: The Spectacle of Roman Power. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997.
Grant, Michael. Gladiators. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1967.
Harris, H. A. Sport in Greece and Rome. Aspects of Greek and Roman Life. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972.
Pearson, John. Arena: The Story of the Colosseum. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.
Wiedemann, Thomas. Emperors and Gladiators. London: Routledge, 1992.
Wistrand, Magnus. Entertainment and Violence in Ancient Rome: The Attitudes of Roman Writers of the First Century A. D. Göteburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis Universitatis, 1992.
Image List: The following images from the pages on this topic are available through the VRoma Image Archive; further information can be found by consulting the various slide indices. Images in the VRoma Archive may be used for non-commercial purposes, either by downloading the images or by linking to them; it is not necessary to write for permission, but we do ask that you credit the VRoma Project.
|reconstruction drawing of Colosseum (Nispi-Landi)||Lucanian tomb painting of gladiators and chariot||gladiatorial mosaic||terra-cotta lamp of gladiators||terra-cotta flask of gladiators|
|Kuhn (1913) fig. 113, p. 103||Paestum Museum, 5th century CE||villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE||Hermitage Museum||Cologne, R-G Museum|
|view toward Vesuvius||view through upper-level arched door||staircase in cavea||exterior wall and staircase||view of arena through entrance passage|
|Amphitheater, Pompeii||Amphitheater, Pompeii||Amphitheater, Pompeii||Amphitheater, Pompeii||Colosseum, Rome|
|exterior walls||exterior wall with Corinthian, Ionic and Doric orders||model of Colosseum||model of Colosseum with cutaway section||cavea from top level|
|Colosseum, Rome||Colosseum, Rome||EUR Museum||EUR Museum||Colosseum, Rome|
|arena with underground openings||underground corridor||underground with areas for animal cages||arena with underground openings||arena opening with rim for trapdoor|
|Colosseum, Rome||Colosseum, Rome||Amphitheater, Pozzuoli||Amphitheater, Capua||Amphitheater, Pozzuoli|
|underground structures||exterior top with awning post holders||gladiator figurines||bronze gladiator's helmet||mosaic--lanista and Thracian|
|Amphitheater, Pozzuoli||Colosseum, Rome||British Museum||British Museum, 1st century CE||Verona Museum|
|mosaic--lanista secutor, retiarius||mosaic--retiarius menaced by secutor||relief of bestiarii and animals||Colchester Vase--bestiarii||bestiarius and leopard|
|Verona Museum||Verona Museum||cast from EUR Museum||Colchester Museum, 2nd-3rd century CE||villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE|
|bestiarii and bear||small palaestra with gladiators' barracks||large palaestra||ruins of gladiators' practice amphitheatre||water organ and horn player|
|villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE||Pompeii||Pompeii||Rome||villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE|
|men fighting with whips||elderly trainer and tame lion||animals fighting in arena||mosaic of lion hunt||mosaic of boar hunt|
|villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE||villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE||villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE||Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE||Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE|
|mosaic of captured rhino||mosaic showing trapping of a tiger||wagon for transporting animals||animals carried onto ship||ship for transporting animals|
|Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE||Worcester Art Museum||Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE||Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE||Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE|
|griffin guarding human in cage||painting detail--Dirce and bull||reconstruction drawing of Colosseum with naumachia (Nispi-Landi)||retiarius, secutor, lanista||Colchester Vase--defeated retiarius|
|Piazza Armerina, 4th century CE||House of Vettii, Pompeii||Kuhn (1913) fig. 114, p. 103||villa at Nennig, 2nd-3rd century CE||Colchester Museum, 2nd-3rd century CE|
|"Gladiatorial Combat," by J.-L. Gerome||drawing of gate of Libitina||mosaic of gladiatorial scene|
|Kuhn (1913) fig. 120, p. 111||Kuhn (1913) fig. 121, p. 112||Munich, Praehistorisches Museum, 3rd century CE|
Return to Arenarevised January, 1999